School and Workshop on Modular Forms and Black Holes, 5–14 January 2017, National Institute of Science Education and Research, Bhubaneswar, India
Dynamics, Geometry and Number Theory, 13–17 June 2016, Institut Henri Poincaré, Paris
"French–Japanese Workshop on multiple zeta functions and applications", 7–9 September 2015, Saint-Etienne, France
"The interrelation between mathematical physics, number theory and non-commutative geometry", 2–13 March, 2015, ESI, University of Vienna
Workshop on Algebraic, Number Theoretic and Graph Theoretic Aspects of Dynamical Systems, 2–6 February, 2015, UNSW, Sydney, Australia
Analysis, Spectra, and Number Theory, 15–19 December 2014, Princeton University and the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ
This conference is being organized in honour of Peter Sarnak on the occasion of his 61st birthday.
Pseudorandomness in Number Theory, 14–18 July 2014, CIRM (Marseille),
Symmetries and correspondences in number theory, geometry, algebra and quantum computing: Intra-disciplinary trends, 5–10 July 2014, Mathematical Institute, Oxford, UK
Interactions between Dynamics of Group Actions and Number Theory, 9 June–4 July 2014, Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Cambridge, UK
Dynamics and Numbers, 1 June–31 July 2014, Max Planck Institute for Mathematics, Bonn
Dynamics and Analytic Number Theory, 31 March–4 April 2014, Durham University, UK
Model Theory, Arithmetic Geometry and Number Theory, 20 January–23 May 2014, Mathematical Sciences Research Institute, UC-Berkeley
"The program aims to further the flourishing interaction between model theory and other parts of mathematics, especially number theory and arithmetic geometry. At present the model theoretical tools in use arise primarily from geometric stability theory and o-minimality. Current areas of lively interaction include motivic integration, valued fields, diophantine geometry, and algebraic dynamics."
Introductory Workshop: Model Theory, Arithmetic Geometry and Number Theory, 3–7 February 2014, Mathematical Sciences Research Institute, UC-Berkeley
"Model theory is a branch of mathematical logic whose structural techniques have proven to be remarkably useful in arithmetic geometry and number theory. We will introduce in this workshop some of the main themes of the programme covering such topics as Additive Combinatorics, Algebraic Dynamics, Berkovich Spaces, and the Pink–Zilber Conjectures."
Multiple Zeta Values, Multiple Polylogarithms and Quantum Field Theory, 7–11 October, 2013, ICMAT, Campus de Cantoblanco, Madrid
Multiple Zeta Values in Mathematics and Physics, 1–5 October, 2013, Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany
Clay Research Conference: Number Theory and Physics, 30 September– October 4, 2013, Mathematical Institute, Oxford University, UK
Chance & Chaos: From Physics to Number Theory, 16 September 2013, School of Mathematics, University of Bristol, UK
Summer School 2013: Theory of Numbers and Dynamics, 17 June–5 July, 2013, Institut Fourier, Grenoble
Advances in number theory and dynamical systems, 8–12 April, 2013, University of Bristol, UK
Conference on zeta functions, Independent University of Moscow, 19–23 November, 2012
Numbers and Truth: The Philosophy and Mathematics of Arithmetic and Truth
A Marcus Wallenberg Symposium, Gothenburg, Sweden, 19–21 October, 2012
The conference was organized by the Department of Philosophy, Linguistics and Theory of Science at the University of Gothenburg in cooperation with the Institute of Philosophy at the University of Warsaw and the Department of Philosophy at Lund University.
Arithmetic Geometry and Arithmetic Dynamics: Conference on the occasion of the 70th birthday of Lucien Szpiro, 29 May–1 June, 2012, The Graduate Center of the City University of New York
ICERM Semester Program on Complex and Arithmetic Dynamics, 30 January 30–4 May, 2012, Brown University, USA
ICERM Semester Program Workshop on Complex and p-adic Dynamics, 13–17 February, 2012, Brown University, USA
ICERM Semester Program Workshop on Global Arithmetic Dynamics, 12–16 March, 2012, Brown University, USA
ICERM Semester Program Workshop on Moduli Spaces associated to Dynamical Systems, 16–20 April, 2012, Brown University, USA
Dynamics on Homogeneous Spaces and Number Theory, September 12–16, 2011, Mathematics Research Institute, Ohio State University
The Pretentious View of Analytic Number Theory, June 26–July 2, 2011, Mathematics Research Communities, Snowbird Resort, Utah, USA
"Since Riemann's 1859 monograph, the study of the distribution of prime numbers has been dominated by the study of the zeros of the Riemann zeta function and Dirichlet L-functions. Although there have been ad hoc elementary proofs of some of the key results, there has been no coherent alternative approach to that of Riemann. This research community will study a new and different way to develop analytic number theory, without zeros, stemming from the concept of "pretentiousness"."
p-adic Hodge theory, p-adic differential equations and applications, June 6–9, 2011, ENS, Lyon, France
Number Theory and Physics at the Crossroads, Banff International Research Station, May 8–13, 2011
Workshop on Multiple Zeta Values, Modular Forms and Elliptic Motives, May 3–6, 2011, University of Bristol, UK
School and Conference on Modular Forms and Mock Modular Forms and their Applications in Arithmetic, Geometry and Physics, February 28–March 18, 2011, The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy
Workshop on Dynamical Systems and Number Theory, December 1, 2010, Department of Computing, Macquarie University and School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of New South Wales, Australia
Exploratory Experimentation and Computation in Number Theory, July 7–9, 2010, University of Newcastle, Australia
EU-Young and Mobile Workshop: Dynamical Systems and Number Theory, May 17–19, 2010, 15 South College, Edinburgh
Second International Workshop on Zeta Functions
in Algebra and Geometry, May 3–7, 2010, Palma de Mallorca, Spain
Number Theory as Experimental and Applied Science,
January 1 – April 30, 2010, Centre de Recherches Mathématiques, Université de Montréal
"The year 2010 marks the 50th anniversary of the publication of Eugene Wigner's famous essay on the "unreasonable effectiveness
of mathematics in the natural sciences". The intervening five decades have witnessed an explosion in the variety and scope of the
applications of mathematics, to the extent that one can now speak of an ongoing "mathematization" of many branches of science and
indeed of society as a whole. Number theory, traditionally viewed as far removed from the sphere of applications, now plays a
central role in questions pertaining to the design of efficient networks as well as in areas like robotics, computer vision,
statistics, coding theory, computer security, and cryptography. By extending the reach of calculation and the potential of the
experimental method, ever-more powerful and sophisticated software packages like Maple, Magma and SAGE are transforming the way
in which number theorists approach their subject.
The 2010 Winter semester (January 1 – April 30) will be devoted to recent developments in number theory with a specific focus
on significant practical applications, as well as on the many ways in which the field stands to be affected by the emergence of new
software and technologies."
Workshop on Dynamical Systems and Uniform Distribution, 28–29 January, 2010, TU Graz, Austria
The Diverse Faces of Arithmetic, December 14–16, 2009, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK
"The conference will cover the remarkable interactions of Number Theory with Logic, Dynamical Systems and Mathematical Physics: for example, novel approaches to Hilbert's Tenth Problem, and connections between Elliptic Divisibility Sequences and Integrable Systems. One of the purposes of the conference is to bring together researchers in quite diverse fields,the common point being an interaction with Number Theory, particularly concerning the arithmetic of recurrence sequences."
Interactions Between Hyperbolic Geometry, Quantum Topology and Number Theory. Workshop:
June 3–13, 2009; Conference:June 15–19, 2009, Columbia University, New York
International Conference: Mock theta functions and
applications in combinatorics, algebraic geometry and mathematical physics, May 25–29, 2009, Max Planck Institute for Mathematics, Bonn
Dynamical Numbers: Interplay between Dynamical Systems and Number Theory",
May 1–July 31, 2009, Max Planck Institute for Mathematics, Bonn
"The theory of dynamical systems is currently one of the important areas of mathematics. Since 2000 it is given a
separate heading in the Mathematical Reviews. Owing to its universal character, the theory uses methods from various
branches of mathematical science (algebra, analysis, topology, ...). It has arisen from an attempt at an adequate
description of phenomena in the surrounding world. Therefore it traditionally plays the role of the theoretical basis for
various models in physics, biology, economics, etc. Nevertheless, at present also conversely, problems posed in the
theory of dynamical systems penetrate other mathematical theories, giving them a fresh impulse, serving as a tool for
solving complex problems within these theories and also opening completely new problems. Besides the classical branches
of the dynamical systems theory (ergodic theory, topological dynamics, low dimensional, smooth and complex dynamics)
there have appeared new ones - algebraic and arithmetical dynamics."
Workshop on Zeta Functions, L-Functions and their Applications, June 1–4, 2009, Utah Valley University
Special Session on The Interface Between Number Theory and Dynamical Systems,
2009 Spring Central Sectional Meeting, Urbana, IL, March 27–29, 2009
ESI Program on Number Theory and Physics, March 1–April 18,
Winter School on Quantum Chaos, January
26–30, 2009, Université de Bordeaux 1, Talence, France
December 1–5, 2008, Independent University of Moscow
Random matrices, L-functions and
primes, October 27–31, 2008, Forschungsinstitut für Mathematik of ETH Zürich
New Directions in the Theory of
Universal Zeta- and L-Functions, October 6–10, 2008, Department of Mathematics, Würzburg University, Germany
4th International Kyiv Conference on Analytic Number Theory and Spatial Tessellations,
September 22–28, 2008, Drahomanov National Pedagogical University, Kyiv and Institute of Mathematics of National
Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
Theory and Physics at the Crossroads, Banff International Research Station, September 21–26, 2008
Broader Connections: Ergodic Theory and Additive Combinatorics,
August 21–22, 2008, MSRI
Introduction to Ergodic Theory and Additive Combinatorics,
August 25–29, 2008, MSRI
Ergodic Theory and Additive Combinatorics,
August 18–December 19, 2008, MSRI
Discrete Rigidity Phenomena in Additive Combinatorics,
November 3–7, 2008, MSRI
Conference on Additive Combinatorics, Number Theory and Harmonic Analysis, April 5–13, 2008, Fields Institute
French-Japanese Winter School
on Zeta and L-functions, January 8–11, 2008, Moholova Minds Miura, Kanagawa, Japan
International Conference on Number Theory,
Mathematical Physics, and Special Functions, December 20–22, 2007, Sastra University, Kumbakonam, India
Workshop on p-adic aspects of differential
equations: Crystals, Mirror symmetry, Modular forms, November 5–8, 2007, Centre Bernoulli, EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland
The Third International Conference on p-adic Mathematical Physics:
From Planck scale physics to complex systems to biology, Steklov Mathematical Institute
Moscow, Russia, October 1–6, 2007
"p-Adic mathematical physics is a rapidly developing area with numerous
applications in different fields ranging from quantum theory to chaotic
and nano systems to molecular biology and to information science.
The aim of this conference is to present recent results in p-adic
mathematical physics, related fields, and applications, as well as to
discuss earlier results and possible future directions of investigation."
Summer School on Dynamical Systems and Number Theory,
Graz, July 9–13, 2007
This summer school is organised as a part of the National Research Network "Analytic
Combinatorics and Probabilistic Number Theory" supported by the Austrian Science Foundation.
The purpose of the summer school is to introduce and enlighten the powerful interplay between dynamical systems and number theory. The four
courses focus on different recent research developments in that direction. The summer school is therefore designed for PhD students and young
Post-Docs with some background in ergodic theory and number theory.
International Workshop on Zeta Functions in Algebra and
Geometry, June 25–29, 2007, Segovia, Spain
Workshop on Number Theory and
Random Phenomena, March 26–30, 2007, Heibronn Institute, Bristol, UK
Austrian National Research Network: Analytic Combinatorics
and Probabilistic Number Theory
L-functions, ranks of elliptic curves, and random matrix
theory, Banff International Research Station, 8–13 July, 2007
French-Japanese Workshop on zeta functions:
Methods of meromorphic continuations, study of zeros and special values, Université de Caen, November 30 and December 1,
Conference on Zeta Functions, September 18–22, 2006, Moscow
Number Theory and Harmonic Analysis:
to and fro, 15–17 June, 2006, Université de Lille, France
Forms and String Duality", Banff International Research Station, June 3–8, 2006
"Physical duality symmetries relate special limits of the various consistent string theories (Types I, II, Heterotic
string and their cousins, including F-theory) one to another. By comparing the mathematical descriptions of these theories,
one reveals often quite deep and unexpected mathematical conjectures. The best known string duality to mathematicians, Type
IIA/IIB duality also called mirror symmetry, has inspired many new developments in algebraic and arithmetic geometry,
number theory, toric geometry, Riemann surface theory, and infinite dimensional Lie algebras. Other string dualities such
as Heterotic/Type II duality and F-Theory/Heterotic string duality have also, more recently, led to series of mathematical
conjectures, many involving elliptic curves, K3 surfaces, and modular forms. Modular forms and quasi-modular forms play a
central role in mirror symmetry, in particular, as generating functions counting the number of curves on Calabi-Yau manifolds
and describing Gromov-Witten invariants. This has led to a realization that time is ripe to assess the role of number theory,
in particular, that of modular forms, in mirror symmetry and string dualities in general.
One of the principal goals of this workshop is to look at modular and quasi-modular forms, congruence zeta-functions, Galois
representations, and L-series for dual families of Calabi-Yau varieties with the aim of interpreting duality symmetries in
terms of arithmetic invariants associated to the varieties in question. Over the last decades, a great deal of work has been
done on these problems. In particular it appears that we need to modify the classical theories of Galois representations (in
particular, the question of modularity) and modular forms, among others, for families of Calabi-Yau varieties in order to
accommodate "quantum corrections"."
Number Theory and Random Matrix Theory, May 30–June 3, 2006, University of Rochester
Advances in Number Theory and
Random Matrix Theory, June 5–8, 2006, University of Rochester, USA
Aspects of Random Matrices and Quantum Chaos", University of Bordeaux, 24–28 April 2006
"One of the goals of this conference is to allow specialists of the various themes involved in the study of random
matrices and quantum chaos (not necessarily from the arithmetic point of view) to interact and exchange ideas. For this
purpose, the number of talks is voluntarily limited. Two short courses are also intended to allow students at the graduate
level to discover these subjects.
The main emphasis this year will be Quantum Chaos, with a sub-theme of ergodic-theoretic ideas and methods, but
arithmetic applications of random matrices will also appear in some of the lectures."
UK-Japan Winter School:
Dynamics and Arithmetics, Organized by Keio University COE21 in cooperation with
University College Cork, Department of Mathematics and University of Warwick, Mathematics Research Centre
Nowton Court, Bury St Edmunds, 8–12 January 2006
Conference on "Number Theory and Mathematical Physics", Srinivasa Ramanujan Centre, Kumbakonam,
India, 20–21st December 2005
in Geometry, Number Theory and Quantum Fields", Max Planck Institute, October 24–28, 2005
International Conference on p-Adic Mathematical Physics,
15–21 September 15–21, 2005, Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro
International Conference on
Probability and Number Theory 2005, June 20–24, 2005, Kanazawa, Japan
Workshop on Number Theory
and Random Matrix Theory, June 1–3, 2005, Waterloo, Canada
Workshop on p-adic Dynamics,
May 14–16, 2005, Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connecticut, USA
Theory of the Riemann Zeta
and Allied Functions, Oberwolfach, September 19–25, 2004 [conference report]
Harmonic Analysis and Number Theory, September 18–20, 2004, University of Exeter, UK
Workshop on Noncommutative Geometry and Number Theory II, June 14–18,
2004, Max Planck Institute, Bonn (Organizers - A. Connes,
C. Consani, Yu. Manin, M. Marcolli)
"Zeta functions: geometrical,
analtyic and diophantine aspects", Université de Caen, 14–16 June, 2004
Dynamical Systems and Diophantine Approximation, June 7–9, 2004, Institut Henri Poincaré, France
Perspectives in Random Matrix Theory and Number Theory", Isaac Newton Institute of Mathematical
Sciences, Cambridge, UK, 29 March – 8 April 2004
"The connection between random matrix theory and the zeros of the Riemann zeta function
was first suggested by Montgomery and Dyson in 1973, and later used in the 1980's to
elucidate periodic orbit calculations in the field of quantum chaos. Just in the past few
years it has also been employed to suggest brand new ways for predicting the behaviour of
the Riemann zeta function and other L-functions. Notwithstanding these successes there has
always been the problem that very few researchers are well-versed both in number theory and
methods in mathematical physics. The aim of this school is to provide a grounding in both
the relevant aspects of number theory, and the techniques of random matrix theory, as well
as to inform the students of what progress has been made when these two apparently
disparate subjects meet. "
This is linked with the Isaac Newton Institute programme:
"Random Matrix Approaches in Number
Theory", 26 January – 16 July 2004
"For thirty years there have been conjectured connections, supported by ever mounting evidence, between the zeros of
the Riemann zeta function and eigenvalues of random matrices. One of the most famous unsolved problems in mathematics is
the Riemann hypothesis, which states that all the non-trivial zeros of the zeta function lie on a vertical line in the
complex plane, called the critical line. The connection with random matrix theory is that it is believed that high up on
this critical line the local correlations of the zeros of the Riemann zeta function, as well as other L-functions, are
the same as those of the phases of the eigenvalues of unitary matrices of large dimension taken at random from the CUE
ensemble of random matrix theory. More recently, however, it was realized that random matrix theory not only describes
with high accuracy the distribution of the zeros of L-functions, but it is also extremely successful in predicting the
structure of various average values of L-functions that previous number theoretic techniques had not been able to tackle.
The programme will mainly focus on how random matrix theory can further contribute to unanswered questions in number
theory and on how to put the connection between random matrices and number theory on a rigorous footing. However, both
random matrix theory and number theory individually play significant roles in theoretical physics and probability: random
matrix statistics appear in the spectra of quantum systems whose classical limit is chaotic; the problem of quantum unique
ergodicity has connections with the theory of modular surfaces and algebraic number theory; many of the main results on the
statistics of ensembles of random matrices have been the work of probabilists; the Riemann zeta function even shows up in
the theory Brownian motion - and this is just to name a few. These themes will also be developed through focused workshops.
The main goal of this programme is to draw on the expertise of these diverse groups to produce new ideas on how random
matrix theory can tackle important problems in number theory."
Arizona Winter School 2004 - "Number
Theory and Physics", The University of Texas at Austin, March 13–17, 2004
Quantum Chaos, 23–24 January 2004, Département de Mathématiques, Université
"Arithmetic Quantum Chaos" is a research area at the cross-roads of differential geometry, ergodic theory,
harmonic analysis, mathematical physics, and number theory. This session of the MAT Seminar will focus on
important recent progress in this area and will consist of two series of introductory lectures given by experts in
the field, with the goal of showing that quantum chaos hides a deep harmony at its core.
The first series of lectures will focus on several aspects of the spectrum of Riemann surfaces - on the one hand,
the existence and the reparition of eigenvalues of the laplacian operator, and on the other hand, the properties of
its eigenfunctions (behavior with respect to a quasiconformal deformation, properties of equirepartition when the
eigenvalue goes to infinity, ...). The main focus will be on the case of surfaces of "arithmetic" type for which ergodic
methods, as well as methods coming from the theory of automorphic forms and analytic number theory, have been
able to make spectacular progress and to prove (at least in the arithmetic case) several of the main conjectures from
quantum chaos theory.
The second series of lectures will be devoted to random matrices. Introduced by E. P. Wigner as a way of modelling
the resonances of an heavy (atomic) nucleus, this theory has - thanks to the works of Montgomery and more
recently Katz/Sarnak - found applications in the understanding of the zeros of L-functions.
The most important of these, of course, is the Riemann zeta function. But the model becomes especially
significant when we consider general families of L-functions of automorphic forms. We then get a coherent
scaffold of conjectures on the structure of the zeros, as well as special values, of L-functions. Many of these
conjectures have been confirmed by numerous experimental and theoretical results."
The First International Conference on p-adic Mathematical Physics,
Steklov Mathematical Institute, Moscow, Russia, October 1–5, 2003
p-Adic mathematical physics is a quickly developing area with numerous applications in different fields ranging from
quantum theory to disordered and chaotic systems to molecular biology and to information science.
The aim of this conference is to present recent results in p-adic mathematical physics, related fields, and applications,
as well as to discuss earlier results and possible future directions of investigation.
Contributions will be solicited in the research areas including:
- p-adic quantum mechanics, string theory,
and field theory
- Planck scale physics, quantum cosmology
- p-adic dynamical systems and stochastic processes
- p-adic methods in spin glasses, disordered and chaotic systems, mesoscopic systems and molecular
dynamics, molecular biology, information and computer science
- Non-archimedean and noncommutative geometry
- p-adic mathematical physics and number theory, (Riemann) zeta-functions, algebraic geometry, motives,
representation theory, spectral theory, functional analysis.
Proceedings of the conference will be published in the special issue of the Proceedings of the Steklov Mathematical Institute.
Organizing Committee: B.Dragovich (Yugoslavia), A.Khrennikov (Sweden), A.N.Kochubei (Ukraine),
S.V.Kozyrev (Secretary, Russia), V.S.Vladimirov (Co-Chairman, Russia), I.V.Volovich (Co-Chairman, Russia)
Titles and abstracts can be submitted to: Scientific Secretary Dr. S.V.Kozyrev: <email@example.com>. Further
information is available on the website which is currently under construction:
aspects of number theory: Developments and perspectives in noncommutative number theory, August 28th
- September 5th, 2003, University of Durham, UK
on Noncommutative Geometry and Number Theory, August 18–22, 2003, Max Planck Institute, Bonn
JAMI Conference on
"Primes and knots", March 7–16, 2003, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, USA
Frontiers in Number
Theory, Physics and Geometry, École de Physique, Les
Houches (in the French Alps), 10–21st March 2003. [proceedings]
This follows an earlier "number theory and physics" conference held in the
same location in March 1989.
Workshop on Zeta-functions and Associated
Riemann Hypotheses, 29 May – 2 June 2002, Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences,
New York University.
Martin Huxley's summary of the New York conference.
Martin Huxley's limericks based on the conference.
on Maass wave forms, Selberg zeta function, and spin chains, June 10–14, 2002, Max Planck Institute,
and Probability Theory, 29–31 October 2001, Kyushu University, Japan
Theory of the Riemann Zeta and Allied Functions, 16–22 September 2001,
Random Matrices and Quantum Chaos Workshop,
Bristol, UK, 13–14 September 2001. Speakers include Brian Conrey,
Peter Sarnak, Nina Snaith, Zeev Rudnick and Andrew Odlyzko.
Random Matrices Conference,
MIT, 12 August 2001.
Zeta Function - Swiss Mathematical Society Spring Meeting.
Université de Neuchâtel, 7–9 June 2001.
DMV Seminar on The Riemann Zeta Function and Random Matrix Theory, Mathematisches
Institut Oberwolfach, Germany – 15–21 October, 2000.
AMS conference: Mathematical challenges of the 21st Century –
Mathematics of the Physical World, UCLA – 7–12 August, 2000
Workshop: Harmonic Analysis and Zeta Functions,
University of Gottingen – 22–26 May, 2000
the Interface of Probability and Number Theory, University of Illinois,
May 19/20, 2000
on Unusual Applications of Number Theory, January 10–14, 2000, DIMACS Center, Rutgers University, USA
Geometric Rigidity and Number Theory 5 January–7 July, 2000, Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences,
Theorie de Nombres, Bruit des Frequences et
Telecommunications, Institut Henri Poincare, Paris – 3/4 December 1999
University of Aarhus conference on Number Theory
and Spectral Theory – 3/4 December 1999
conference Random Matrices and Their Applications: Quantum Chaos, GUE
Conjecture for Zeros of Zeta Functions, Combinatorics, and All That,
June 7–11, 1999
(streaming video footage of many of the lectures given is available
Noise, Oscillators and Algebraic Randomness:
From Noise in Communication Systems to Number Theory – April 5–10,
1999, Chapelle des Bois, France.
ESI Vienna 1998 conference on the Riemann zeta
Number Theory and its Applications – November 10–14, 1997,
Research Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Kyoto University, Japan
Workshop on Enumeration and Zeta-Functions, December
4–6, 1997, University of Lille
Emerging Applications of Number Theory – 1996 IMA
The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Number Theory – AMS Symposium, University
of Maine, 1992
Number Theory and Physics – Winter school, Les
Houches, France, March 7–16, 1989