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School HomeResearchPast Seminar informationPast Advanced Technologies seminars

Past Advanced Technologies Research Institute Seminars by Reverse Date

 


Advanced Technologies Research Institute Seminars (Historical)

Title: New Computational techniques for modeling Acoustic Fluids and Wave Propagation
Professor S Gopalakrishnan (Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore)
9 Jun 2011Harrison H170 (3D Visualisation Suite) Thursday 2pmAdvanced Technologies RI
In this talk, new computational models for studying dynamics of acoustic fluids will be presented. The talk will cover two different computational models, namely the conventional finite elements and the frequency domain based spectral finite elements. Two different fluid finite element formulations based on Lagrangian frame of reference, one based on h-type formulation and the second based on Legendre's time domain spectral elements will be presented in this talk. One of the problems associated with h-type Lagrangian FEM is that they suffer from mesh locking problems due to fluid incompressibility. In addition to mesh locking problems, these elements exhibit a numerous zero energy eigen modes due to fluid circulation. To circumvent these zero energy modes, the fluid is made irrotational, which will further stiffen the formulated fluid element. Hence the formulated h-type will suffer from two different constraints, one due to fluid incompressibility and the second due to fluid irrotationality. The main objective of the first part of the talk is to formulate Lagrangian h-type FEM that is free from mesh locking due to twin constraints. In this work, formulation of both 2-D and 3-D elements will be presented. In the second part of the talk, Lagrangian FEM based on Lengendre's basis functions is presented. Here, it will be seen that the choice of different integration scheme for the volumetric stiffness and rotational stiffness will not only eliminate mesh locking, but also exhibit superior convergence property. The last part of the talk will address the formulation of Spectral FEM, especially for studying wave propagation in acoustic fluids. The talk will cover a number of examples that show the computational superiority of Spectral Fem over conventional FEM. The use of the formulated elements for fluid-structure interaction problems will be addressed in this talk.

 

Title: New Computational techniques for modeling Acoustic Fluids and Wave Propagation
Professor S Gopalakrishnan (Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore)
9 Jun 2011Harrison H170 (3D Visualisation Suite) Thursday 2pmAdvanced Technologies RI
In this talk, new computational models for studying dynamics of acoustic fluids will be presented. The talk will cover two different computational models, namely the conventional finite elements and the frequency domain based spectral finite elements. Two different fluid finite element formulations based on Lagrangian frame of reference, one based on h-type formulation and the second based on Legendre's time domain spectral elements will be presented in this talk. One of the problems associated with h-type Lagrangian FEM is that they suffer from mesh locking problems due to fluid incompressibility. In addition to mesh locking problems, these elements exhibit a numerous zero energy eigen modes due to fluid circulation. To circumvent these zero energy modes, the fluid is made irrotational, which will further stiffen the formulated fluid element. Hence the formulated h-type will suffer from two different constraints, one due to fluid incompressibility and the second due to fluid irrotationality. The main objective of the first part of the talk is to formulate Lagrangian h-type FEM that is free from mesh locking due to twin constraints. In this work, formulation of both 2-D and 3-D elements will be presented. In the second part of the talk, Lagrangian FEM based on Lengendre's basis functions is presented. Here, it will be seen that the choice of different integration scheme for the volumetric stiffness and rotational stiffness will not only eliminate mesh locking, but also exhibit superior convergence property. The last part of the talk will address the formulation of Spectral FEM, especially for studying wave propagation in acoustic fluids. The talk will cover a number of examples that show the computational superiority of Spectral Fem over conventional FEM. The use of the formulated elements for fluid-structure interaction problems will be addressed in this talk.

 

Title: Damage Tolerance Optimization of Tapered Composite Laminates
Giuliano Allegri (Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Bristol)
12 May 2011Harrison H170 (3D Visualisation Suite) Thursday 2pmAdvanced Technologies RI
Tapering structural element is necessary in order to optimize specific stiffness and strength. Tapered metallic parts can be manufactured by casting or machining, whilst for fibre reinforced composites tapering always requires terminating, i.e. dropping-off, plies. Ply drop-offs act as stress raisers since they represent discontinuities for the laminate geometrical arrangement and elastic properties. Therefore ply terminations promote delamination and thus compromise the laminate strength and damage tolerance performance. An analytical solution for the calculation of the energy release rates associated with delaminations emanated from ply drop-offs has been developed and employed to optimize the termination sequences in tapered laminates for maximum damage tolerance performance under given geometric constraints. This optimization task has been proved to be analogous to the classical "travel salesman" problem, provided than a suitable fracture energy metric is introduced. Different optimization techniques have been employed, including genetic algorithms and simulated annealing with stochastic tunnelling. The optimization results can be synthesised in a set of "robust" design principles which have been implemented in a fuzzy logic framework in order to provide optimized configurations at limited computational costs.

 

Title: Damage Tolerance Optimization of Tapered Composite Laminates
Giuliano Allegri (Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Bristol)
12 May 2011Harrison H170 (3D Visualisation Suite) Thursday 2pmAdvanced Technologies RI
Tapering structural element is necessary in order to optimize specific stiffness and strength. Tapered metallic parts can be manufactured by casting or machining, whilst for fibre reinforced composites tapering always requires terminating, i.e. dropping-off, plies. Ply drop-offs act as stress raisers since they represent discontinuities for the laminate geometrical arrangement and elastic properties. Therefore ply terminations promote delamination and thus compromise the laminate strength and damage tolerance performance. An analytical solution for the calculation of the energy release rates associated with delaminations emanated from ply drop-offs has been developed and employed to optimize the termination sequences in tapered laminates for maximum damage tolerance performance under given geometric constraints. This optimization task has been proved to be analogous to the classical "travel salesman" problem, provided than a suitable fracture energy metric is introduced. Different optimization techniques have been employed, including genetic algorithms and simulated annealing with stochastic tunnelling. The optimization results can be synthesised in a set of "robust" design principles which have been implemented in a fuzzy logic framework in order to provide optimized configurations at limited computational costs.

 

Title: Developing a Strategic Framework for the Successful Implementation of Additive Manufacturing Technologies
Stephen Mellor (Engineering, CEMPS, University of Exeter)
5 May 2011Harrison H170 (3D Visualisation Suite) Thursday 1pmAdvanced Technologies RI (Internal)
It has long been understood that innovation in production technology can be used strategically as a powerful competitive weapon, enabling a manufacturing organisation to produce products that are better, cheaper and made faster than the competition. However, the wrong technology, or even the right technology poorly implemented, can be disastrous. Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies have played an important role in product development (Rapid Prototyping) for many years, and we are beginning to see their use in production applications, albeit on a limited scale. This research proposes that the only similarity between using these technologies for prototyping and production is the process itself. Secondly, that there remains a significant gap in our knowledge of when and how to implement AM, and that this knowledge is key to increasing the adoption and diffusion of these technologies. This research project investigates the process of AM implementation over its life-cycle, identifying and developing an understanding of the factors influencing its success and failure. Beginning with a framework developed from the process technology implementation literature and existing AM implementation studies, exploratory case studies are used to test this framework and develop implementation roadmaps.

 

Title: Developing a Strategic Framework for the Successful Implementation of Additive Manufacturing Technologies
Stephen Mellor (Engineering, CEMPS, University of Exeter)
5 May 2011Harrison H170 (3D Visualisation Suite) Thursday 1pmAdvanced Technologies RI (Internal)
It has long been understood that innovation in production technology can be used strategically as a powerful competitive weapon, enabling a manufacturing organisation to produce products that are better, cheaper and made faster than the competition. However, the wrong technology, or even the right technology poorly implemented, can be disastrous. Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies have played an important role in product development (Rapid Prototyping) for many years, and we are beginning to see their use in production applications, albeit on a limited scale. This research proposes that the only similarity between using these technologies for prototyping and production is the process itself. Secondly, that there remains a significant gap in our knowledge of when and how to implement AM, and that this knowledge is key to increasing the adoption and diffusion of these technologies. This research project investigates the process of AM implementation over its life-cycle, identifying and developing an understanding of the factors influencing its success and failure. Beginning with a framework developed from the process technology implementation literature and existing AM implementation studies, exploratory case studies are used to test this framework and develop implementation roadmaps.

 

Title: Pressure response analysis in head injury
Christopher Pearce (Engineering, CEMPS, University of Exeter)
7 Apr 2011Harrison H170 (3D Visualisation Suite) Thursday 1pmAdvanced Technologies RI (Internal)
Head injury is a significant cause of death and disability in society. Recent advances in Finite Element (FE) modelling techniques can provide insight and aid understanding of the trauma mechanisms of head injury. A new approach to generating bio-fidelic numerical models is presented based on a technique adapted from the marching cubes approach. This approach automates the generation of meshes based on 3D scan data and allows for a number of different structures (e.g. skull, scalp, brain) to be meshed simultaneously. The numerical models were used to validate an analytical model developed by one of the authors and good agreement was observed. Under certain impact conditions low mass impactors were found to produce large transient peaks of positive and negative pressure in the brain. A sensitivity study was conducted to investigate the robustness of this effect across a wide range of impact conditions. Numerical models of increased bio-fidelity were then analyzed and the transient pressure amplification behaviour for certain impact conditions was again observed; this provides confidence that the behaviour holds true as the model becomes more realistic. Beyond its significance in the area of head impact biomechanics, the study has demonstrated that numerical models generated from 3D medical data can be used effectively to simulate physical processes. This is particularly useful when considering the risks, difficulties and ethical issues involved when using cadavers.

 

Title: Pressure response analysis in head injury
Christopher Pearce (Engineering, CEMPS, University of Exeter)
7 Apr 2011Harrison H170 (3D Visualisation Suite) Thursday 1pmAdvanced Technologies RI (Internal)
Head injury is a significant cause of death and disability in society. Recent advances in Finite Element (FE) modelling techniques can provide insight and aid understanding of the trauma mechanisms of head injury. A new approach to generating bio-fidelic numerical models is presented based on a technique adapted from the marching cubes approach. This approach automates the generation of meshes based on 3D scan data and allows for a number of different structures (e.g. skull, scalp, brain) to be meshed simultaneously. The numerical models were used to validate an analytical model developed by one of the authors and good agreement was observed. Under certain impact conditions low mass impactors were found to produce large transient peaks of positive and negative pressure in the brain. A sensitivity study was conducted to investigate the robustness of this effect across a wide range of impact conditions. Numerical models of increased bio-fidelity were then analyzed and the transient pressure amplification behaviour for certain impact conditions was again observed; this provides confidence that the behaviour holds true as the model becomes more realistic. Beyond its significance in the area of head impact biomechanics, the study has demonstrated that numerical models generated from 3D medical data can be used effectively to simulate physical processes. This is particularly useful when considering the risks, difficulties and ethical issues involved when using cadavers.

 

Title: On the Use of Open-Source Software for Complex CFD Modeling: from Blood Damage in Cardiovascular Devices to Interaction of Wind Turbines with the Atmospheric Boundary Layer
Professor Eric Paterson (Computational Mechanics Division, Applied Research Laboratory, The Pennsylvania State University)
17 Mar 2011Harrison 215 Thursday 2pmAdvanced Technologies RI
Over the past 5 years, the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) community has witnessed the emergence of the first significant open-source software package (OpenFOAM) that rivals the capabilities of commercial software tools. Cost savings of "free" software is attractive to organizations which incur large software licensing fees, however, these cost savings are often offset by the need for resident expertise in molding the open-source tools to local needs. The real benefits of using open-source tools is the gain in local expertise and "ownership" (i.e., it is no longer a black box), and the access to source code and a flexible architecture, both of which are significant enablers for new and complex-physics modeling. The focus of this presentation will be on the use of OpenFOAM at Penn State University in modeling a number of complex fluid dynamics problems, including: blood damage in heart-assist devices; conjugate mass transfer and canine olfaction; compressible multiphase flow associated with underwater explosions; fluid-structure interaction of flexible turbomachinery; adjoint-based optimization for hydropower; and wind-turbines operating in a turbulent atmospheric boundary layer. An overview and key results for each problem will be presented, along with a discussion of how OpenFOAM enabled successful modeling of these complex problems.

 

Title: Memristive Devices and Applications
Dr Themis Prodromakis (Imperial College)
10 Mar 2011Harrison H170 (3D Visualisation Suite) Thursday 2pmAdvanced Technologies RI
As CMOS technology approaches the nano-scale floor, electron devices attain comparable dimensions to their constituting atoms, imposing significant challenges on the performance, reliability and eventually the manufacturability of analogue and digital circuits. Yet, in 1959 R. Feynman proposed that there is plenty of room at the bottom and he predicted that the operation of emerging devices would rely on the manipulation of just a few atoms; the memristor is nowadays considered as an exemplar device. Memristive devices are not something new; we have been experiencing similar dynamics well before Leon Chua established the theoretical grounds of the field. Yet, such behaviours were, until recently, attributed to random hysteretic effects, since the ionic mechanics were not fully appreciated. Nowadays though, we are able to reliably reproduce memristive elements and utilise their unique properties in novel applications. During this talk, I will present the state-of-the-art developments in the field while it will be demonstrated how memristive dynamics could be exploited in practical applications, with particular emphasis in the areas of analogue IC design and neurobiology.

 

Title: Multi-objective Optimisation in Additive Layer Manufacturing processes
Giovanni Strano (Engineering, CEMPS, University of Exeter)
3 Mar 2011Harrison H170 (3D Visualisation Suite) Thursday 1pmAdvanced Technologies RI (Internal)
Selective Laser Sintering (SLS), as one of the most widely used additive manufacturing technologies, represents a valuable manufacturing process in the aerospace, automotive and medical industries. Due to the preheating requirement for the SLS of polymer materials, one of the main challenges is to reduce the energy required for the part building process and at the same time maintain the surface quality of the parts, represented by surface roughness, as this has aesthetic and functional importance for industrial applications. These objectives are competing criteria and are significantly influenced by the build orientation of the parts in the SLS process. This study investigates a computational methodology for the simultaneous minimization of surface roughness and energy consumption in the SLS process, to locate the optimal trade-off set between these objectives, known as Pareto set; thus, it provides with a consistent decision support system for the identification of optimal build orientations for Selective Laser Sintering. The methodology and the mathematical approach presented are generally applicable to powder bed based ALM platforms such as Selective Laser Melting (SLM) and Electron Beam Melting (EBM). The multi-objective approach, in addition to the studied objectives, can be employed for the optimisation of more targets, for example by including the minimisation of anisotropy in mechanical proprieties of part produced by any ALM platforms.

 

Title: Multi-objective Optimisation in Additive Layer Manufacturing processes
Giovanni Strano (Engineering, CEMPS, University of Exeter)
3 Mar 2011Harrison H170 (3D Visualisation Suite) Thursday 1pmAdvanced Technologies RI (Internal)
Selective Laser Sintering (SLS), as one of the most widely used additive manufacturing technologies, represents a valuable manufacturing process in the aerospace, automotive and medical industries. Due to the preheating requirement for the SLS of polymer materials, one of the main challenges is to reduce the energy required for the part building process and at the same time maintain the surface quality of the parts, represented by surface roughness, as this has aesthetic and functional importance for industrial applications. These objectives are competing criteria and are significantly influenced by the build orientation of the parts in the SLS process. This study investigates a computational methodology for the simultaneous minimization of surface roughness and energy consumption in the SLS process, to locate the optimal trade-off set between these objectives, known as Pareto set; thus, it provides with a consistent decision support system for the identification of optimal build orientations for Selective Laser Sintering. The methodology and the mathematical approach presented are generally applicable to powder bed based ALM platforms such as Selective Laser Melting (SLM) and Electron Beam Melting (EBM). The multi-objective approach, in addition to the studied objectives, can be employed for the optimisation of more targets, for example by including the minimisation of anisotropy in mechanical proprieties of part produced by any ALM platforms.

 

Title: On the mechanism of displacive phase transformations
Professor Bob Pond (University of Exeter)
3 Feb 2011Harrison H170 (3D Visualisation Suite) Thursday 1pmAdvanced Technologies RI (Internal)
Phase transformations are key processes in the manufacture and application of engineering materials. In displacive transformations, the transforming material undergoes a change of shape, primarily by shear. This feature underlies key properties such as the hardenability of steel and the toughening of ceramics. It is also responsible for the widely exploited properties of shape-memory and super-elastic alloys. It is important to develop a comprehensive understanding of the processes of nucleation and growth of a new phase. Recent research on growth mechanisms and the factors governing transformation kinetics will be outlined in this talk. The techniques employed are principally transmission electron microscopy and atomic-scale computer simulation.

 

Many Objective Optimisation of Engineering Problems
Dr. Evan J. Hughes (Department of Informatics and Sensors, University of Cranfield)
19 Jan 2011Harrison 170 Wednesday 3pmComputer Science
Most real engineering problems are characterised by having many criteria that are to be optimised simultaneously. Unfortunately the criteria are often conflicting and so have to be considered as a many-objective optimisation process in order to derive a trade-off surface of the available optima solutions. Although a plethora of algorithms have been developed for optimising two-objective problems, many of them do not work well as the number of objectives increase. The talk introduces some of the new algorithms that have been developed for investigating many-objective problems and describes how the methods have been used to advance the design of airborne fire-control and surveillance radars.

 

Title: Quality in Supply Chains - Good Relationships Needed for Successful Engineering Business
Pinar Baban (Engineering, CEMPS, University of Exeter)
13 Jan 2011Harrison H170 (3D Visualisation Suite) Thursday 2pmAdvanced Technologies RI (Internal)
This research focuses on improving the performance of supply chains with regard to quality. Recent examples from industry such as Toyota gas pedal failure and global banking crisis as an outcome of the lack of common rules over the national and international financial regulatory norms show that supply chains, operating in both manufacturing and service, are still experiencing problems. Supply chain structure along with relationship factors proposes a potential for a successful integration in a supply chain for which supply chain quality can be defined. As supply chain quality is considered as a relatively unexplored area, a contribution to the literature would be possible by developing a conceptual framework in which formulation, centralisation, communication and relationship factors are simultaneously adapted in constructing the conceptual model. Main purpose of the research is to transcend the quality concept of an organisation to the supply chain level with reference to this model. The case study method is used to test the conceptual model. Data collected is to be analysed in order to verify the model so that practical implications and guidelines for firms operating in various fields ranging from manufacturing to service sectors could be formulated.

 

Title: Quality in Supply Chains - Good Relationships Needed for Successful Engineering Business
Pinar Baban (Engineering, CEMPS, University of Exeter)
13 Jan 2011Harrison H170 (3D Visualisation Suite) Thursday 2pmAdvanced Technologies RI (Internal)
This research focuses on improving the performance of supply chains with regard to quality. Recent examples from industry such as Toyota gas pedal failure and global banking crisis as an outcome of the lack of common rules over the national and international financial regulatory norms show that supply chains, operating in both manufacturing and service, are still experiencing problems. Supply chain structure along with relationship factors proposes a potential for a successful integration in a supply chain for which supply chain quality can be defined. As supply chain quality is considered as a relatively unexplored area, a contribution to the literature would be possible by developing a conceptual framework in which formulation, centralisation, communication and relationship factors are simultaneously adapted in constructing the conceptual model. Main purpose of the research is to transcend the quality concept of an organisation to the supply chain level with reference to this model. The case study method is used to test the conceptual model. Data collected is to be analysed in order to verify the model so that practical implications and guidelines for firms operating in various fields ranging from manufacturing to service sectors could be formulated.

 

Title: The impact and blast resistance of lightweight structures
Professor Wesley Cantwell (Centre for Materials and Structures, University of Liverpool)
9 Dec 2010Harrison H170 (3D Visualisation Suite) Thursday 2pmAdvanced Technologies RI
This talk will focus on current and recent research investigating the response of lightweight materials and structures to impact and blast loads. The presentation will initially outline a number of projects on topics such as high rate Mode III interlaminar fracture, scaling effects, smart materials based on shape memory alloys and embedded optical fibres and new lightweight core materials for sandwich structures. Attention will then focus on the impact and blast response of both thermoplastic-matrix compositemetal hybrid systems (fibre metal laminates) and lattice structures manufactured using the selective laser melting technique. Attempts are made to model the dynamic behaviour of the FMLs and lattice structures using finite element techniques.

 

Title: Carbon Based Memories: Understanding the observed switching behaviour at the nanoscale
Peiman Hosseini (Engineering, CEMPS, University of Exeter)
2 Dec 2010Harrison H170 (3D Visualisation Suite) Thursday 1pmAdvanced Technologies RI (Internal)
The ever increasing demand for data storage capacity has pushed the current dominating technologies to their respective limits. Research groups around the world are investing enormous effort and resources to develop the next generation of memory devices that target 100 billion $ market currently shared between HD, DRAM and FLASH. Following the discovery of fullerenes Carbon continues to receive great scientific attention thanks to its extraordinary chemical and physical properties. Given the right environmental conditions carbon can exist as stable graphite or metastable Diamond, these allotropes have completely different electrical conductivity making them appealing for memory systems. The aim of our research project is to induce change in nano-scale regions of thin carbon films and to characterize and understand the nature of the observed switching effect that results.

 

Title: Carbon Based Memories: Understanding the observed switching behaviour at the nanoscale
Peiman Hosseini (Engineering, CEMPS, University of Exeter)
2 Dec 2010Harrison H170 (3D Visualisation Suite) Thursday 1pmAdvanced Technologies RI (Internal)
The ever increasing demand for data storage capacity has pushed the current dominating technologies to their respective limits. Research groups around the world are investing enormous effort and resources to develop the next generation of memory devices that target 100 billion $ market currently shared between HD, DRAM and FLASH. Following the discovery of fullerenes Carbon continues to receive great scientific attention thanks to its extraordinary chemical and physical properties. Given the right environmental conditions carbon can exist as stable graphite or metastable Diamond, these allotropes have completely different electrical conductivity making them appealing for memory systems. The aim of our research project is to induce change in nano-scale regions of thin carbon films and to characterize and understand the nature of the observed switching effect that results.

 

Title: Proper Use of Unit Cells in Micromechanical Finite Element Analyses of Materials with Periodic Microstructures
Professor Shuguang Li (Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham)
11 Nov 2010Harrison 170 (3D Visulisation Suite) Thursday 2pmAdvanced Technologies RI
Unit cells have been increasingly employed in various analyses, in particular, for micromechanical analyses of composite materials where periodicities feature the microstructure, often in conjunction of the use of finite elements. The formulation of a unit cell could start as if it was a trivial exercise, at least as often perceived. However, it soon becomes overwhelming to such an extent that most attempts have gone either futile or incorrect, as is often observed in open literature, including research papers from reputable academic journals. Some typical examples of this kind will be cited to set the scene for the discussion. The lecture is intended to draw some clear guidelines for proper formulation of unit cells in a systematic manner, which rests firmly on the concept of symmetries and their physical properties. Significant implications of properly formulated unit cells on the pre-processing (meshing) and post-processing (e.g. derivation of effective properties) will be discussed.

 

Title: Proper Use of Unit Cells in Micromechanical Finite Element Analyses of Materials with Periodic Microstructures
Professor Shuguang Li (Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham)
11 Nov 2010Harrison 170 (3D Visulisation Suite) Thursday 2pmAdvanced Technologies RI
Unit cells have been increasingly employed in various analyses, in particular, for micromechanical analyses of composite materials where periodicities feature the microstructure, often in conjunction of the use of finite elements. The formulation of a unit cell could start as if it was a trivial exercise, at least as often perceived. However, it soon becomes overwhelming to such an extent that most attempts have gone either futile or incorrect, as is often observed in open literature, including research papers from reputable academic journals. Some typical examples of this kind will be cited to set the scene for the discussion. The lecture is intended to draw some clear guidelines for proper formulation of unit cells in a systematic manner, which rests firmly on the concept of symmetries and their physical properties. Significant implications of properly formulated unit cells on the pre-processing (meshing) and post-processing (e.g. derivation of effective properties) will be discussed.

 

Title: Fullerene-Like WS2 Nanoparticles and Nanocomposites: Processing, Characterisation and Applications
Dr Hong Chang (Engineering, CEMPS, University of Exeter)
4 Nov 2010Harrison H170 (3D Visualisation Suite) Thursday 1pmAdvanced Technologies RI (Internal)
A fullerene is any molecule composed entirely of carbon, in the form of a hollow sphere, ellipsoid, or tube. Following the discovery of carbon fullerenes and nanotubes, closed-cage non-carbon fullerene-like nanoparticles or nanotubes were discovered and they were given the name of inorganic fullerene-like materials (abbreviated as IFs). This research is focused on the processing and characterisation of WS2 IFs and their nanocomposites. The presentation will begin with a review on the extraordinary properties and potential applications of WS2 IFs, followed by the research motivation, periodic research progresses and plans for future work.

 

Title: Fullerene-Like WS2 Nanoparticles and Nanocomposites: Processing, Characterisation and Applications
Dr Hong Chang (Engineering, CEMPS, University of Exeter)
4 Nov 2010Harrison H170 (3D Visualisation Suite) Thursday 1pmAdvanced Technologies RI (Internal)
A fullerene is any molecule composed entirely of carbon, in the form of a hollow sphere, ellipsoid, or tube. Following the discovery of carbon fullerenes and nanotubes, closed-cage non-carbon fullerene-like nanoparticles or nanotubes were discovered and they were given the name of inorganic fullerene-like materials (abbreviated as IFs). This research is focused on the processing and characterisation of WS2 IFs and their nanocomposites. The presentation will begin with a review on the extraordinary properties and potential applications of WS2 IFs, followed by the research motivation, periodic research progresses and plans for future work.

 

Title: Mechanical Properties as a function of Nano-Architecture
Dr Dean C. Sayle (Department of Engineering and Applied Science, Cranfield University)
14 Oct 2010Harrison H170 (3D Visualisation Suite) Thursday 2pmAdvanced Technologies RI
If we build an arch not out of stone bricks, but using NanoBuilding Blocks will it have unprecedented load carrying capacity? Here, we formulate ‘Engineering Rules at the Nanoscale’ using HPC. Specifically, we use atomistic computer simulation to generate models of nanomaterials and calculate their mechanical properties. In particular, nanoparticle building blocks are positioned at crystallographic positions to facilitate a particular (nano)architecture and the mechanical strength calculated using molecular dynamics simulation.

 

Title: Mechanical Properties as a function of Nano-Architecture
Dr Dean C. Sayle (Department of Engineering and Applied Science, Cranfield University)
14 Oct 2010Harrison H170 (3D Visualisation Suite) Thursday 2pmAdvanced Technologies RI
If we build an arch not out of stone bricks, but using NanoBuilding Blocks will it have unprecedented load carrying capacity? Here, we formulate ‘Engineering Rules at the Nanoscale’ using HPC. Specifically, we use atomistic computer simulation to generate models of nanomaterials and calculate their mechanical properties. In particular, nanoparticle building blocks are positioned at crystallographic positions to facilitate a particular (nano)architecture and the mechanical strength calculated using molecular dynamics simulation.

 

Crystal inspired beam networks with negative elastic properties
Tom Hughes (Engineering, CEMPS, University of Exeter)
7 Oct 2010Harrison H170 (3D Visualisation Suite) Thursday 1pmAdvanced Technologies RI (Internal)
An astonishing result was published in 1998: far from being the rare property it was then thought to be, negative Poisson's ratio behaviour in metals is actually quite common [1]. Of the 32 cubic metals investigated, around 69% were found to exhibit auxetic behaviour when strained in the [110] direction however, this paper only proposed inconclusive explanations and a limited mechanism. Since then, no study has revisited the issue, and no one has answered the really puzzling question, which is "why are one third of cubic metals NOT auxetic?". In this work we first study the elastic properties of cubic metals using atomistic modelling, and then of beam frameworks inspired by cubic metals using finite element analysis To determine the elastic constants for a range of 24 body-centred and face-centred metallic crystals, we use two-body and many-body classical potentials. The elastic constants can then be used to calculate the Poisson's ratio of the crystals for a strain in any direction. The simpler two-body potentials obey the Cauchy relation, and consequently always predict a negative Poisson's ratio. Many-Body potentials, such as Finnis-Sinclair, are able to more accurately predict the elastic constants of the crystals and Poisson's ratios are generally found to be in agreement with experimental data published in the literature. The deformation mechanisms for both positive and negative Poisson's ratio in body-centred and face-centred cubic structures are also determined. The bond network in cubic metals is also used as inspiration for truss structures composed of bending beams. By modelling the first, second and third nearest neighbour bonds in a cubic crystal as beams of varying stiffness, it has been possible to show (using the finite element method) how the Poisson's ratio of the structure changes from negative to positive according to the relative stiffness of the three classes of beams. This paradigm is then extended to investigate structures of lower symmetry, in a bid to find novel engineering structures with negative Poisson's ratio. [1] Baughman et al. Negative Poisson's ratios as a common feature of cubic metals. Nature 392, 362-365 (1998)

 

Crystal inspired beam networks with negative elastic properties
Tom Hughes (Engineering, CEMPS, University of Exeter)
7 Oct 2010Harrison H170 (3D Visualisation Suite) Thursday 1pmAdvanced Technologies RI (Internal)
An astonishing result was published in 1998: far from being the rare property it was then thought to be, negative Poisson's ratio behaviour in metals is actually quite common [1]. Of the 32 cubic metals investigated, around 69% were found to exhibit auxetic behaviour when strained in the [110] direction however, this paper only proposed inconclusive explanations and a limited mechanism. Since then, no study has revisited the issue, and no one has answered the really puzzling question, which is "why are one third of cubic metals NOT auxetic?". In this work we first study the elastic properties of cubic metals using atomistic modelling, and then of beam frameworks inspired by cubic metals using finite element analysis To determine the elastic constants for a range of 24 body-centred and face-centred metallic crystals, we use two-body and many-body classical potentials. The elastic constants can then be used to calculate the Poisson's ratio of the crystals for a strain in any direction. The simpler two-body potentials obey the Cauchy relation, and consequently always predict a negative Poisson's ratio. Many-Body potentials, such as Finnis-Sinclair, are able to more accurately predict the elastic constants of the crystals and Poisson's ratios are generally found to be in agreement with experimental data published in the literature. The deformation mechanisms for both positive and negative Poisson's ratio in body-centred and face-centred cubic structures are also determined. The bond network in cubic metals is also used as inspiration for truss structures composed of bending beams. By modelling the first, second and third nearest neighbour bonds in a cubic crystal as beams of varying stiffness, it has been possible to show (using the finite element method) how the Poisson's ratio of the structure changes from negative to positive according to the relative stiffness of the three classes of beams. This paradigm is then extended to investigate structures of lower symmetry, in a bid to find novel engineering structures with negative Poisson's ratio. [1] Baughman et al. Negative Poisson's ratios as a common feature of cubic metals. Nature 392, 362-365 (1998)

 

Title: Infra-red imaging in experimental mechanics
Professor Janice Barton (School of Engineering Sciences, University of Southampton)
1 Jul 2010Harrison H170 (3D Vis Suite) Thursday 1pmAdvanced Technologies RI
Infra-red imaging is usually associated with fairly the crude temperature measurements made to assess the condition of structures and for thermal based non-destructive evaluations. Highly sensitive infra-red detectors are now available that allow high spatial resolutions along with temperature resolutions of about 20 mK. If lock-in processing is used the temperature resolution can be improved to 2 mK. A technique that takes advantage of the high spatial and temperature resolution of modern IR detectors is TSA (thermoelastic stress analysis). Here the infra-red (IR) detector is used to 'measure' the small reversible temperature change associated with the thermoelastic effect from a component subjected to cyclic load. The detector output signal is related to the changes in the sum of the principal stresses on the surface of the material. Therefore the 'thermal image' provides full-field data that is a function of the surfaces stresses. For orthotropic materials, such as laminated composite structures, the small temperature change is related to the changes in the stresses in the principal material directions on the surface of the material. The data is recorded and processed in a matter of seconds enabling practically real-time studies and hence providing clear benefit in damage evaluations. In the presentation the background theory underpinning the application of TSA is provided. The focus of the presentation is application of infra-red imaging to polymer composites, sandwich structures and foam core materials. Examples of applications as well as some more fundamental physical issues will be presented.

 

Title: Infra-red imaging in experimental mechanics
Professor Janice Barton (School of Engineering Sciences, University of Southampton)
1 Jul 2010Harrison H170 (3D Vis Suite) Thursday 1pmAdvanced Technologies RI
Infra-red imaging is usually associated with fairly the crude temperature measurements made to assess the condition of structures and for thermal based non-destructive evaluations. Highly sensitive infra-red detectors are now available that allow high spatial resolutions along with temperature resolutions of about 20 mK. If lock-in processing is used the temperature resolution can be improved to 2 mK. A technique that takes advantage of the high spatial and temperature resolution of modern IR detectors is TSA (thermoelastic stress analysis). Here the infra-red (IR) detector is used to 'measure' the small reversible temperature change associated with the thermoelastic effect from a component subjected to cyclic load. The detector output signal is related to the changes in the sum of the principal stresses on the surface of the material. Therefore the 'thermal image' provides full-field data that is a function of the surfaces stresses. For orthotropic materials, such as laminated composite structures, the small temperature change is related to the changes in the stresses in the principal material directions on the surface of the material. The data is recorded and processed in a matter of seconds enabling practically real-time studies and hence providing clear benefit in damage evaluations. In the presentation the background theory underpinning the application of TSA is provided. The focus of the presentation is application of infra-red imaging to polymer composites, sandwich structures and foam core materials. Examples of applications as well as some more fundamental physical issues will be presented.

 

Title: Processing and applications of nanotubes and graphene
Dr Ian Kinloch (School of Materials, University of Manchester)
13 May 2010Harrison 170 (3D Vis Suite) Thursday 2pmAdvanced Technologies RI

 

CANCELLED
Fares Al Essa
6 May 2010Harrison 170 (3D Vis Suite) Thursday 1pmAdvanced Technologies RI (Internal)
CANCELLED

 

Control Engineering Approaches to Systems Biology Research
Declan Bates (University of Exeter)
4 May 2010Harrison 170 Monday 4pmApplied Mathematics

 

A Taxonomy of Agility Strategies in UK Companies
Rundong Wang (Engineering, CEMPS, University of Exeter)
1 Apr 2010Harrison 170 (3D Vis Suite) Thursday 1pmAdvanced Technologies RI (Internal)
In the past decade, significant changes have taken place in manufacturing industry. The changes are characterized by the increased intensity of global outsourcing and global marketing, the rising energy and material costs and problems associated with the quality and security of the supply networks. Under this circumstance, firms have been forced to adjust their strategic manufacturing emphases and seek more effective strategies to survive from the dynamic and rapidly changing marketplace. Agility, that aims to provide firms with competitive capabilities to prosper from dynamic and continuous changes in the business environment, has been widely accepted as a prevailing strategy. Whilst most previous work has considered agility as a holistic concept, this study applies a taxonomical approach to identify if there are clear patterns in companies' needs for agility and in their emphases of agility capabilities. Furthermore, the most significant differences between agility strategies with respect to supply chain design and management practices are examined. In the presentation, the initial identification of existing patterns of agility strategies will be described. Typical cases will be briefly depicted with explanations of strategies and practices they adopted.

 

A Taxonomy of Agility Strategies in UK Companies
Rundong Wang (Engineering, CEMPS, University of Exeter)
1 Apr 2010Harrison 170 (3D Vis Suite) Thursday 1pmAdvanced Technologies RI (Internal)
In the past decade, significant changes have taken place in manufacturing industry. The changes are characterized by the increased intensity of global outsourcing and global marketing, the rising energy and material costs and problems associated with the quality and security of the supply networks. Under this circumstance, firms have been forced to adjust their strategic manufacturing emphases and seek more effective strategies to survive from the dynamic and rapidly changing marketplace. Agility, that aims to provide firms with competitive capabilities to prosper from dynamic and continuous changes in the business environment, has been widely accepted as a prevailing strategy. Whilst most previous work has considered agility as a holistic concept, this study applies a taxonomical approach to identify if there are clear patterns in companies' needs for agility and in their emphases of agility capabilities. Furthermore, the most significant differences between agility strategies with respect to supply chain design and management practices are examined. In the presentation, the initial identification of existing patterns of agility strategies will be described. Typical cases will be briefly depicted with explanations of strategies and practices they adopted.

 

Extracting materials mechanical constitutive parameters from full-field deformation measurements: the Virtual Fields Method
Professor Fabrice Pierron (Laboratoire de Mécanique et Procédés de Fabrication)
25 Mar 2010Harrison 170 (3D Vis Suite) Thursday 1pmAdvanced Technologies RI
The fast development and diffusion of full-field deformation measurement techniques (such as digital image correlation, speckle interferometry etc.) has opened new prospects in the identification of the mechanical behaviour of materials. The research group led by Professor Fabrice Pierron has been active in this area for more than 15 years. In particular, an original identification method dedicated to full-field measurements has been in the centre of most of the developments in the group. This technique is called the Virtual Fields Method (VFM, www.camfit.fr). The presentation will provide an overview of a vast range of applications of this methodology (static, vibrations, high strain rate) on different types of materials (composites, damaged materials, metals, welds, polymers, wood, foams etc...) to enhance the capabilities of the VFM and provide tracks for the future.

 

Rainfall-Runoff Simulation and Groundwater Recharge in Arid Regions
Prof. Moshen Sherif (College of Engineering, UAE University)
17 Mar 2010Harrison 203 Wednesday 3pmInformatics RI
In arid and semi-arid regions, rainfall events are limited and random. Extreme events are more frequent and, hence, detention and retention dams are usually built across the main wadis to intercept surface water runoff and recharge the groundwater systems. In this presentation, the focus is devoted to the simulation of surface water runoff and groundwater recharge due to water storage in the lakes of dams. HEC-HMS model is used to simulate the surface water runoff and water storage in the lakes of three main dams due to rainfall events in the northern area of the United Arab Emirates. Within the calibration process of HEC-HMS, the simulated water flow and storage in the dams were compared with the observed data for several storm events. Using the calibrated model, a family of rainfall-runoff/storage curves was developed based on the duration and intensity of rainfall events. These curves can be used for prediction of surface water runoff in the three wadis and water storage in the dams in response to different rainfall events. The groundwater recharge was simulated using MODFLOW. The model was calibrated and verified using different data sets and the results of groundwater levels were found to be in good agreement with the observed data. The model was also used to assess the increase of groundwater recharge due to the construction of dams. Significant amounts of the infiltrated water are retained in the unsaturated zone.

 

Title: The Role of Particle Cavitation in the Toughening of Rubber-modified Epoxy Adhesives
Professor Felicity Guild (Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College London)
11 Mar 2010Harrison 170 (3D Vis Suite) Thursday 2pmAdvanced Technologies RI
Many investigations into the source of toughness in rubber toughened adhesives have associated enhanced toughness with the process of rubber particle cavitation. Our model for rubber particle cavitation has now been established using an energy balance approach. This model used a combination of finite element simulations and experimental results. Predictions for rubber particle cavitation in both uniaxial loading conditions and the triaxial loading conditions ahead of a crack and the dependence on particle size will be presented and compared with experimental results. The energy contributions arising from the different energy sources can be evaluated. These predictions for particle cavitation allow the role of this process in the overall toughness of these materials to be assessed.

 

Title: The Role of Particle Cavitation in the Toughening of Rubber-modified Epoxy Adhesives
Professor Felicity Guild (Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College London)
11 Mar 2010Harrison 170 (3D Vis Suite) Thursday 2pmAdvanced Technologies RI
Many investigations into the source of toughness in rubber toughened adhesives have associated enhanced toughness with the process of rubber particle cavitation. Our model for rubber particle cavitation has now been established using an energy balance approach. This model used a combination of finite element simulations and experimental results. Predictions for rubber particle cavitation in both uniaxial loading conditions and the triaxial loading conditions ahead of a crack and the dependence on particle size will be presented and compared with experimental results. The energy contributions arising from the different energy sources can be evaluated. These predictions for particle cavitation allow the role of this process in the overall toughness of these materials to be assessed.

 

Giant Magnetoresistive and Multiferroic Thin Film Development Using a New Sputtering Technique
Denh Tran (College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, University of Exeter)
4 Mar 2010Harrison 170 (3D Vis Suite) Thursday 1pmAdvanced Technologies RI (Internal)
A new sputter deposition technique will be described. This technology, developed at Plasma Quest Ltd., is designed for high rate sputtering and uniform erosion of the target. This gives the name of the technique 'High Target Utilsation Sputtering' (HiTUS). Other key advantages of this technology will be highlighted. This seminar will also review the use of HiTUS for Giant Magnetoresistive thin films and the interesting new area of multiferroics.

 

Giant Magnetoresistive and Multiferroic Thin Film Development Using a New Sputtering Technique
Denh Tran (College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, University of Exeter)
4 Mar 2010Harrison 170 (3D Vis Suite) Thursday 1pmAdvanced Technologies RI (Internal)
A new sputter deposition technique will be described. This technology, developed at Plasma Quest Ltd., is designed for high rate sputtering and uniform erosion of the target. This gives the name of the technique 'High Target Utilsation Sputtering' (HiTUS). Other key advantages of this technology will be highlighted. This seminar will also review the use of HiTUS for Giant Magnetoresistive thin films and the interesting new area of multiferroics.

 

A study of scanning probe phase change memory
Dr Lei Wang
4 Feb 2010Harrison 170 (3D Vis Suite) Thursday 1pmAdvanced Technologies RI (Internal)
Data storage roadmaps are looking towards density targets of around 1Tbit/in2 by 2010 and to 10Tbit/in2 and beyond thereafter. It is well known that conventional storage devices are challenged by some formidable barriers (the superparamagnetic limit for magnetic storage disks, the diffraction limit for optical storage disks, and device scaling limits in flash storage) as they strive to reach ultra-high storage densities. It is hence timely for new, emerging memory technologies to enter the storage field. One possible new technology is scanning probe-based phase change memories, due to their potentially ultra-high-capacity, non-volatility, low-power consumption, low-cost, and write-once/re-writable capability. Therefore, various research groups worldwide have been putting their efforts in to developing scanning probe phase change memories technologies experimentally. In this circumstance, theoretical models are also required in order to understand the physical processes involved, and thus to help spur further experimental developments. Thus, this presenation looks at a theoretical framework and associated computational model for write, read, and erase processes in electrical probe storage on phase change materials (Ge2Sb2Te5).

 

The confidence to build - Some thoughts on engineering software
Prof. Bill Harvey
26 Jan 2010Harrison 170 Tuesday 2pmInformatics RI
Engineering software began about 1950 with some of the earliest available digital computers. It became possible to analyse complex structures. Since then, the poawer of computers has grown at an almost frightening rate. Endless bells and whistles have been added to analytical software. In recent years ther have been attempts to couple CAD programs to analysis and call the package design. But engineering design is not about deciding on a geometry then asking the computer where the forces go. Real design is about deciding where you want the forces to flow and then arranging the geometry to make that happen. The same thing is true in CFD but that is not where I work. It is long past time that we realised and released the power of computers to help with design insteead of merely providing analytical results. That will involve fundamental changes in our vision of what we want to do. Bill's work is chiefly in structural assessment and in this field, surprisingly, the problem is greater. When designing a new building, if the analysis says this bit is too weak, a stroke of a pen (or mouse) is enough to make it stronger. If the structure is already there we often need to know where the forces might really go rather than where they could go if they need to. The seminar will cover some of the issues described above in the light of the sort of exploratory analysis Bill uses for his assessment work.

 

On Optimisation of Internal Micro-Architectures Using Finite Element Modelling
David Raymont
7 Jan 2010Harrison 170 (3D Vis Suite) Thursday 1pmAdvanced Technologies RI (Internal)
Internal micro-architectures have many uses ranging from light-weight support structures to bone substitutes, or scaffolds as well as aiding bone-implant integration. Designing such structures using traditional CAD software is non-trivial. This presentation focuses on the generation of porous internal micro-architectures principally for use in medical applications, but also extended to internal structures for CAD components. An image-based approach is developed using triply periodic level-set functions to define unit cell topology. Methods for generating both functionally graded and large inhomogeneous micro-architectures will be presented. When addressing the issue of optimisation the limiting factor for such structures is often the finite element analysis (FEA) required for a fitness function. The complexity of these structures demands fine meshing, resulting in computationally expensive simulations. Combined with the need to evaluate the structure's performance hundreds or possibly thousands of times, the optimisation problem soon becomes intractable. To overcome this a homogenisation-like technique has been developed allowing approximate FEA models to be produced. Methods for optimising the generated micro-architectures will be discussed.

 

RUAM: Ready-to-Use Additive Layer Manufacture
Dr Jorn Mehnen (Manufacturing Department, Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedfordshire MK43 0AL, United Kingdom)
10 Dec 2009Harrison 170 (3D Vis Suite) Thursday 2pmAdvanced Technologies RI
RUAM (Ready-to-Use Additive Layer Manufacturing) is an innovative concept for building ready-to-use large metal parts. Additive Layer Manufacturing parts are built in a layer-by-layer fashion using advanced arc welding processes. The RUAM machine is a hybrid concept that integrates welding and finishing in one single machine. The deposition process is controlled by a robot that follows a tool path that is directly created from CAD drawings. The robot paths are determined by design rules that take the complex behaviour of the arc welding process into account. FEM is used to predict temperature and stress distributions to minimise part distortions. The design for RUAM has to take many aspects into account which depend on e.g. the actual geometry and manufacturability of the parts. Best welding parameters as well as best welding techniques (e.g. CMT (Cold metal transfer) and Interpulse welding, high deposition rates) have been investigated for building efficiently ready-to-use RUAM parts. The first prototype of an integrated machine has been introduced. The RUAM machine is designed for building large structures in steel, aluminium and titanium.

 

Additive Layer Manufacturing of Aluminium Aerospace Components
Peter Jerrard
3 Dec 2009Harrison 170 (3D Vis Suite) Thursday 1pmAdvanced Technologies RI (Internal)
Additive Layer Manufacturing (ALM) has now been around for 25 years and can be considered a process that has a place aside more conventional manufacturing methods. Due to some of the advantages that ALM offers many sectors, including the aerospace industry, have vested interest. Unfortunately, like other processes, ALM is far from perfect and is still considered a ‘novel’ process by many. This is due to such issues as limited material choice and mechanical properties, which can be poor when compared to other manufacturing techniques. In particular, the aerospace industry has particular interest in aluminium alloys, the current material of choice for aircraft. One ALM technology, Selective Laser Melting (SLM), allows the processing of a select range of metals. It is only in the last year or so that a few aluminium alloys have become officially available to SLM, which has drawn the attention of the aerospace industry. These alloys are conventional alloys that lend themselves to the SLM process. However, the processing nature of SLM may mean that conventional aluminium alloys may not be the best choice for producing parts. Instead, it may be that new or unconventional alloys may have to be tried. This presentation looks at the potential and current aerospace use of ALM, of the comparison to other manufacturing processes and of the research path the author has chosen to follow in the SLM of aluminium alloys.

 

Amorphous structures of rapid phase-change memory materials
Dr Konstantin Borisenko (Department of Materials, University of Oxford)
12 Nov 2009Harrison 170 (3D Vis Suite) Thursday 2pmAdvanced Technologies RI
Accurate reduced density functions (RDF), which are closely related to the radial distribution functions, can now be routinely obtained from small areas of thin film materials using electron diffraction. The technique provides unique information about distribution of interatomic distances in the material, on the basis of which atomistic models can be built and refined, and then related to the observed properties of the films. This technique has been applied to various materials ranging from metallic glasses to amorphous magnetic films. In this presentation applications of the technique to studies of amorphous phases of rapid phase-change memory materials for information storage are described.

 

Reduction of the energy consumption of a highly energy intensive manufacturing process
Richard de Salis
5 Nov 2009Harrison 170 (3D Vis Suite) Thursday 1pmAdvanced Technologies RI (Internal)
The manufacturing industry is currently undergoing a number of changes to attempt to reduce the energy consumption of their production processes, due to the cost of energy in the current market conditions, and the environmental pressure being placed on them through legislation and consumer opinion. The Ceramic Tile industry is an example of a highly energy intensive sector and as such offers great potential for reduction and the savings this can provide. In this project, work has been carried out with a manufacturer analysing their energy usage, and from this investigating methods which could be used to reduce it. A number of technologies were considered, which will be overviewed, with the conclusion being that in this case the use of energy consumption as an optimisation criterion in their production scheduling will offer the best potential for improvement with their current installed equipment.

 

Heat transfer in turbomachinery predictions with an open source CFD code
Cosimo Bianchini (Faculty of Engineering, University of Florence)
1 Oct 2009Harrison 170 Thursday 1pmAdvanced Technologies RI (Internal)
Due to the continuously growing need of power and efficiency for turbo engines, combustion chamber temperature has far overcome the metal critical temperature indeed more and more loading the combustor liner and first stages cooling devices. These often critical thermal conditions require a detailed knowledge of the aero-thermal behavior of real engine components in order to proceed with improved design. The use of CFD is thus becoming more and more popular among turbine producers also for at design stage of the secondary air system. Dealing with complex geometries, non-aerodynamic bodies, strong temperature and velocity gradients and unsteady phenomena, and ranging the reference Mach from the incompressible limit of the coolant to the transonic regime in the first vanes, it is often very challenging to obtain reliable results and specific tools should be used in order to improve the quality of predictions. The path to make OpenFOAM libraries a reliable tool for heat transfer prediction in turbomachinery is hence illustrated, together with details of the implemented algorithms and models. A wide set of applications of the code to both internal (ribbed and pinned internal channel, impingements) and external (film and effusion holes) cooling are also shown ranging from simple validation test cases to real engine components studied experimentally with Thermo Liquid Crystals.

 

Heat transfer in turbomachinery predictions with an open source CFD code
Cosimo Bianchini (Faculty of Engineering, University of Florence)
1 Oct 2009Harrison 170 Thursday 1pmAdvanced Technologies RI (Internal)
Due to the continuously growing need of power and efficiency for turbo engines, combustion chamber temperature has far overcome the metal critical temperature indeed more and more loading the combustor liner and first stages cooling devices. These often critical thermal conditions require a detailed knowledge of the aero-thermal behavior of real engine components in order to proceed with improved design. The use of CFD is thus becoming more and more popular among turbine producers also for at design stage of the secondary air system. Dealing with complex geometries, non-aerodynamic bodies, strong temperature and velocity gradients and unsteady phenomena, and ranging the reference Mach from the incompressible limit of the coolant to the transonic regime in the first vanes, it is often very challenging to obtain reliable results and specific tools should be used in order to improve the quality of predictions. The path to make OpenFOAM libraries a reliable tool for heat transfer prediction in turbomachinery is hence illustrated, together with details of the implemented algorithms and models. A wide set of applications of the code to both internal (ribbed and pinned internal channel, impingements) and external (film and effusion holes) cooling are also shown ranging from simple validation test cases to real engine components studied experimentally with Thermo Liquid Crystals.

 

Post-buckling response of thin-walled auxetic tubes
Edward Hirons (SECaM)
7 Jul 2009Harrison 107 Tuesday 13:00Advanced Technologies RI (Internal)
The project involves examination of the pre- and post-buckling response of thin walled tubes loaded under flexure, and comparison to various elastic analytical buckling models. The results of experimental data show that the models are inadequate to predict the limit moment reached by the tubes, due largely to the fact that plasticity is not yet modeled. Work is ongoing to incorporate plasticity and potentialy extend the models' application to similar but distinct geometries, i.e. sandwich panels.

 

Model prediction of component quality in Additive Layer Manufacturing
Gilian Hatwell
1 Jun 2009Harrison 209 Thursday 13:00Advanced Technologies RI (Internal)
Additive Layer Manufacturing (ALM) is the generic term applied to a range of high technology processes that are capable of producing net-shape or near net-shape objects from a variety of input materials. ALM covers a broad range of techniques, but methods utilising lasers to process metallic or polymeric powders are of particular interest to high-end engineering manufacturers. The benefits that ALM can provide may have a wide application across many manufacturing sectors. However, this is limited due to concerns about component quality and system repeatability. Previous work has concluded that small variations in the build chamber leads to unacceptable variations in component qualities, particularly mechanical strength. Thermal control systems are already present within ALM processes, and are vital for successful operation, but these are limited and typically only concerned with the corresponding build stage. This seminar looks at the three stages of the PhD; analytical, experimental and computational to build up a generic model predicting the component quality, based on the build conditions (both laser and material parameters) of a polymeric Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) process.

 

A SCM modeling by using Multi-Agent System (MAS)
Naihui He (XMEC)
5 May 2009Harrison 103 Tuesday 13:00Advanced Technologies RI (Internal)
The supply chain is a worldwide network which involves all of those stages from raw material to completed products; while the Supply Chain Management (SCM) is then described as "the integration of all activities" occurring along the supply chain through improved supply chain relationships in order to achieve a suitable competitive advantage. Due to the interior complexity of SCM, SCM modeling has provided a convenient method and become a popular way for scholars to solve emerging problems in a supply chain, such as collaboration and coordination method, and etc. In particular among those modeling approaches, the agent-based technique of Multi-Agent System (MAS) that is a branch of Distributed Artificial Intelligence (DAI) encompasses multiple agents with specific roles each of which interacts with others for achieving its local responsibilities and the overall targets, and thereby is able to address the complexity and dynamics of SCM. This seminar will present a simulation-based SCM modeling system by applying the technique of MAS, which involves the specification of the framework of the modeling and its validation processes.

 

Metals at the tap – how did we get it so wrong and what next?
Dr Colin Hayes (School of Engineering, Swansea University)
5 May 2009Harrison 170 Tuesday 2pmInformatics RI
The metals at the tap of greatest concern are lead, copper and nickel, all of which have health concerns (particularly lead). These metals mainly arise from pipes and fittings in the domestic water supply system. Despite apparent EU requirements to mitigate such issues, sampling problems have conspired to substantially diminish corrective action, the big exception being the UK , where 95% of public water supplies are dosed with ortho-phosphate to suppress plumbosolvency. As sampling deficiencies are rectified, the true scale of problems will emerge. An initial assessment is that 25% of the EU population could be at risk from lead in drinking water. Copper problems appear to be insignificant, whereas nickel problems may also be significant, subject to any future changes in the health based standard. International research networking has potentially influenced the revision of the EU Drinking Water Directive and the implementation of the WHO/UN Protocol on Water and Health. Metals at the tap appear set to climb the international policy agenda. A zonal lead emission model has been developed at Swansea University that can predict compliance with lead standards across an entire City or Town. This is based on a Monte Carlo probabilistic framework and has been validated successfully in numerous case studies. It has been used to optimise phosphate dosing and is currently being used to investigate health risks.

 

Topology Optimisation: Challenges and Applications
Dr H Alicia Kim (Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bath)
19 Mar 2009Harrison 171 Thursday 2pmAdvanced Technologies RI
Topology optimisation is considered the most generalised form of structural optimisation. This seminar will discuss two of the most popular methods: SIMP (Solid Isotropic Material with Penalisation) and ESO (Evolutionary Structural Optimisation). Our recent research showed both of the methods are prone to numerical instabilities, due to the use of regular mesh and piecewise constant design variables. This finding supports the recent development of the boundary based approaches such as level-set function methods. Research at Bath has been developing the efficient and convergent optimisation methods and the current research activities will be presented. The seminar will also show two application areas: traditional engineering design and study of bone remodelling.

 

Topology Optimisation: Challenges and Applications
Dr H Alicia Kim (Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bath)
19 Mar 2009Harrison 171 Thursday 2pmAdvanced Technologies RI
Topology optimisation is considered the most generalised form of structural optimisation. This seminar will discuss two of the most popular methods: SIMP (Solid Isotropic Material with Penalisation) and ESO (Evolutionary Structural Optimisation). Our recent research showed both of the methods are prone to numerical instabilities, due to the use of regular mesh and piecewise constant design variables. This finding supports the recent development of the boundary based approaches such as level-set function methods. Research at Bath has been developing the efficient and convergent optimisation methods and the current research activities will be presented. The seminar will also show two application areas: traditional engineering design and study of bone remodelling.

 

Anisotropic elastic properties
Arnaud Marmier (SECaM)
2 Mar 2009Harrison 209 Thursday 13:00Advanced Technologies RI (Internal)
Elastic Properties have received a resurgence of interest in the last decades, triggered by the discovery of “negative” properties (Poisson’s ratio –PR– and Linear Compressibility –LC–). The fact that these properties are negative is usually described as anomalous, but more and more materials are discovered that posses a negative Poisson’s ratio, usually in a direction without special symmetry. One of the reasons that negative elastic properties still appear unusual is that the formalism of elastic theory, while conceptually simple, does not lend itself well to the representation of properties, especially off-axis. And at present, there are no easily available, convenient to use, method of calculating elastic properties in any direction. In this seminar I will first describe the theory of elasticity in anisotropic media through the tensor formalism. I will then discuss the ElAM computer code (Elastic Anisotropy Measures), which can represent a variety of elastic properties in any direction. Finally, I will present case studies: direction of extrema in cubic crystals, extreme PR and LC, data mining.

 

Design of a 5-Axis Ultraprecision Micro Milling Machine (UltraMill) and its application to micro/nano manufacturing
Prof. Kai Cheng (University of Brunel)
12 Feb 2009Harrison 171 Thursday 2pmAdvanced Technologies RI
Ultraprecision micro manufacturing is emerging as the key enabling technology for engaging high value manufacturing. Although conventional ultraprecision machines have been used as a major means to manufacture high precision components/products for a few decades, it still remains a big issue in machining high precision 3D miniature/micro components, microstructures and products in terms of predictability, producibility and productivity. Therefore, it is essential and much needed to develop ultraprecision micro machines which are industrially feasible for undertaking micro manufacturing, e.g. having the features of small footprint, high precision, low cost and easy to run, etc. This seminar will present the development of a novel 5-axis bench-top micro milling machine - UltraMill. The design considerations and specifications of the machine are discussed against the delicate industrial application requirements. An integrated machine design and analysis approach is described, covering the dynamics of the machine structure, moving components, control system and the machining process, and used to analyze and optimize the entire machine performance at the early design stage. Three prioritized design issues of motion accuracy, dynamic stiffness and thermal stability formulate the holistic design for UltraMill. Furthermore, the approach has been applied to the development of key machine components and their integration so as to enable the machine to achieve high accuracy and fine surface finish. Micro machining trials have been successfully conducted on the machine to produce miniature components and microstructure in a variety of engineering materials. The results have not only verified that the machine renders sub-micron accuracy and nanometer-level surface finish, but also demonstrated that bench-top ultraprecision machines would lead to the trend in design of next/future generation of ultraprecision machines. The seminar will conclude with a further discussion on the potentials and applications of the machine in micro/nano manufacturing in particular.

 

Cancelled
David Raymont (SECaM)
2 Feb 2009Harrison 170 Thursday NoneAdvanced Technologies RI (Internal)
Cancelled

 

The Open Hole Tensile Test – A Challenge For Virtual Testing of Composites
Stephen Hallett (University of Bristol)
15 Jan 2009Harrison 107 Thursday 2pmAdvanced Technologies RI
The open hole tension strength is an important parameter for composite structures since it is can be a limiting factor in design. It is also difficult to characterise and predict through analytical or numerical methods since there exists a wide variation in experimental results depending on testing configuration. Here a range of such variations are presented and the behaviour explained in terms of the development of sub-critical damage in the form of intra-ply splits and inter-ply delaminations and their interaction with each other and also with fibre failure. A finite element based numerical analysis technique has been developed and applied to each case in turn, successfully predicting the failure modes, trends and strengths. This is sufficiently robust to form the basis for a virtual testing framework for the open hole tensile strength of composite materials.

 

Fibrous materials – Hemp, aramid and few others in-between
Dr Michael Sloan (X-AT)
6 Jan 2009Harrison 209 Tuesday 13:00Advanced Technologies RI (Internal)
Fibrous materials play an important role in a number of research projects currently running in SECaM and Exeter Advanced Technologies (X-AT). This presentation will introduce the fibres and their applications in composite materials. Mike Sloan is an associate research fellow in X-AT and has recently completed his PhD titled Eco-efficient friction materials. This work will form the first part of the presentation. The aim of his research was to evaluate the performance of aramid fibres in automotive brake pads and suggest environmentally sustainable replacement fibres such as hemp or flax. The presentation will discuss the analysis of aramid fibres throughout the life of a brake pad from virgin raw material, through to the friction and wear performance of a composite friction material. The effect of substituting natural fibres in a friction material formulation will also be discussed. The second part of the presentation will introduce the Blast curtains project. In this work Helical Auxetic Yarns are being developed and analysed for energy absorbing applications such as blast protection. The construction of a helical auxetic yarn will be shown and the experimental techniques used to evaluate their performance introduced.

 

Atomistic simulation of phase-change memory materials
Dr. Jozsef Hegedus (University of Cambridge)
11 Dec 2008Harrison 107 Thursday 2pmAdvanced Technologies RI
GeSbTe materials are used in optical DVDs and non-volatile electronic memories (phase-change random-access memory). In both, data storage is effected by fast, reversible phase changes between crystalline and amorphous states. Despite much experimental and theoretical effort to understand the phase-change mechanism, the detailed atomistic changes involved are still unknown. In our work we describe how the entire write/erase cycle for the Ge2Sb2Te5 composition can be reproduced using ab initio molecular-dynamics simulations. Deep insight is gained into the phase-change process; very high densities of connected square rings, characteristic of the metastable rocksalt structure, form during melt cooling and are also quenched into the amorphous phase. Their presence strongly facilitates the homogeneous crystal nucleation of Ge2Sb2Te5. As this simulation procedure is general, the microscopic insight provided on crystal nucleation should open up new ways to develop superior phase-change memory materials, for example, faster nucleation, different compositions, doping levels and so on.

 

Perpendicular magnetic recording and a development of contact recording system.
Komkrit Chooruang (SECaM)
2 Dec 2008Harrison 209 Tuesday 13:00Advanced Technologies RI (Internal)
Perpendicular magnetic recording (PMR) is one of the suggested technologies that could postpone the onset of superparamagnetic effects. As the increasing of areal density of the PMR implies that the bit size and head/disk flying heights will have to be decreased in nanometre scales and new media must be developed with improved characteristics. These requirements create a need for instrumentation which can be used to characterise the ultimate performance of heads and media at high recording densities. Therefore, we have developed a contact magnetic recording test system that can help researchers to carry out recording test on different media in order to investigate its performance.

 

Personalised Footwear: From Elite to High Street using Rapid Manufacturing
Dr Candice Majewski (Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University)
13 Nov 2008Harrison 107 Thursday 2pmAdvanced Technologies RI
Rapid Manufacturing encompasses a group of additive technologies used to fabricate end-use parts. A major advantage of this approach is the elimination of the requirement for tooling, thereby allowing production runs of N=1 whilst incurring no cost penalties. This, combined with the geometric freedom achievable with these processes, makes true personalisation of consumer products a viable option. The ~£1 million IMCRC-funded integrated project ‘Personalised Sports Footwear: From Elite to High Street’ is investigating the use of Rapid Manufacturing to produce personalised sports shoes, with the aim of enhancing performance, reducing injury, and providing improved functionality. Initially focussing on footwear for elite athletes, the ultimate goal of the project is to allow the general public to purchase fully personalised footwear at an affordable price, by replacing injection moulded outsoles with rapid manufactured alternatives.

 

Personalised Footwear: From Elite to High Street using Rapid Manufacturing
Dr Candice Majewski (Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University)
13 Nov 2008Harrison 107 Thursday 2pmAdvanced Technologies RI
Rapid Manufacturing encompasses a group of additive technologies used to fabricate end-use parts. A major advantage of this approach is the elimination of the requirement for tooling, thereby allowing production runs of N=1 whilst incurring no cost penalties. This, combined with the geometric freedom achievable with these processes, makes true personalisation of consumer products a viable option. The ~£1 million IMCRC-funded integrated project ‘Personalised Sports Footwear: From Elite to High Street’ is investigating the use of Rapid Manufacturing to produce personalised sports shoes, with the aim of enhancing performance, reducing injury, and providing improved functionality. Initially focussing on footwear for elite athletes, the ultimate goal of the project is to allow the general public to purchase fully personalised footwear at an affordable price, by replacing injection moulded outsoles with rapid manufactured alternatives.

 

Is old better than new? - The benefits of remanufactured products to the consumer and society
M. Errington (X-MEC)
3 Nov 2008Harrison 106 Thursday 13:00Advanced Technologies RI (Internal)

 

Multiple materials patterning using novel a dry powder printer
Dr. Shoufeng Yang (Queen Mary, University of London)
16 Oct 2008Harrison 107 Thursday 2pmAdvanced Technologies RI
The creation of three dimensional functional gradients by powder processing methods requires the capability to arrange a sequence of two dimensional colour images that can be presented to a solid freeforming device. Planar stacking methods can only achieve a one dimensional gradient. We describe the acoustic control of powder metering and dispensing valves in which the flow rate and switching of powders from a capillary can be controlled using the frequency and amplitude of acoustic vibration from a computer sound card. An orchestra of such valves can be used to pattern layers of powder on the building platform which forms part of a 3-axis table.

 

Agent-based modelling and optimisation
Dr O.M. Akanle
13 Oct 2008Harrison 107 Thursday 13:00Advanced Technologies RI (Internal)

 

TBA
M.L. Wears (SECaM)
9 Jun 2008Harrison 209 Thursday 13:00Advanced Technologies RI (Internal)
TBA

 

Additive Layer Manufacturing of Aerospace Components
Danel Johns (UK Airbus Ltd)
8 May 2008Harrison 209 Thursady 2PMAdvanced Technologies RI

 

Rheological characterisation of a commercial glass poly(vinylphosphonate) cement
P. Brookbanks (SECaM)
7 May 2008Harrison 170 Wednesday 13:00Advanced Technologies RI (Internal)
: It has been shown that the working and setting properties of traditional glass ionomer cements (GICs) are affected by the cement mixing time. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of mixing time on the working and setting time of a commercially-available glass poly(vinylphosphonate) cement which differs from traditional GICs in that it is based on a co-polymer of vinyl phosphonic acid and polyacrylic acid. The working and initial setting time of GICs when using an oscillating rheometer have previously been defined by Wilson and Nicholson. Working time is defined as the time taken for the displacement to reach 95% of the initial displacement value and the initial setting time is when the displacement reaches <5% of the initial displacement value.

 

Industrial practices and research potential for reverse logistics systems
Dr Qu Tang (Department of Management and Engineering, Linkoping University, Sweden)
1 May 2008Harrison 209 Thursady 1pmAdvanced Technologies RI

 

Industrial practices and research potential for reverse logistics systems
Dr Qu Tang (Department of Management and Engineering, Linkoping University, Sweden)
1 May 2008Harrison 209 Thursady 1pmAdvanced Technologies RI

 

Image based simulation of large strain deformation of open celled foams.
B. Notarberardino (SECaM)
1 Apr 2008Harrison 170 Tuesday 13:00Advanced Technologies RI (Internal)
Open celled foams are used in industrial applications, (e.g. seating, helmets, space vehicles) as well as commonly found in natural structures (e.g. bone, plant stalks, corals). Analytical models and experimental tests have been carried out by a number of material scientists to gain an understanding of the influence the complex relationship between the parent material properties and the architecture of the foam has on the resultant effective physical properties. Computational modelling offers the prospect of providing a deeper understanding than experimental tests of the mechanisms at work during deformation and more realistic model results than can be achieved via analytical approaches. However the difficulty of meshing the complex topologies of foam micro-architectures has proved, until recently, a barrier to effectively using the most popular of physics based simulation techniques for mechanical characterisation: the finite element method. In the present study, for the first time, a new image based meshing approach ScanFE is used to obtain geometrically and topologically accurate finite element meshes of open celled foams based on 3D imaging data. The finite element models were used in an explicit code, LS-DYNA®, to characterise the quasi-static through to dynamic stress-strain behaviour of the materials for various compression velocities and for both linear elastic and elasto-plastic material properties from small strains right through to strains well into the compaction regime. Both end-plate contacts and general foam to foam contact of the cell walls with sliding were modelled.

 

Multi-objective Ant Colony Optimisation: A Meta-heuristic Approach to Supply Chain Design
L. Moncayo (SECaM)
17 Mar 2008Harrison 203 Thursday 13:00Advanced Technologies RI (Internal)
This paper proposes a new approach to determining the supply chain (SC) design for a product mix comprising complex hierarchies of subassemblies and components. For the supply chains considered, there may be multiple suppliers that could supply the same components as well as optional manufacturing plants that could assemble the subassemblies and the products. Each of these options is differentiated by its lead time and cost. Given all the possible options the supply chain design problem is to select the options that minimise the total cost while keeping the total lead time within required delivery due dates. This work introduces Pareto Ant Colony Optimisation as an especially effective meta-heuristic for solving the problem of SC Design. A number of ant colonies generate a Pareto Optimal Set of SC Designs in which only the non dominated SC designs allow ants to deposit pheromones over the time and cost pheromone matrices. An experimental example is used to test the algorithm and show the benefits of utilising two pheromone matrices and multiple ant colonies in SC optimisation problem.

 

KALYPSO – An Open Source Software Tool for Flood Studies in Rivers
Professor Erik Pasche (Hamburg University of Technology)
13 Mar 2008Harrison 171 Thursday 4pmInformatics RI
As a result of climate change, urbanization and land-use changes, floods are becoming more frequent and causing increased loss and damage to property and life. The EU water policy reacted with a paradigm change in its water policy from blocking off flood prone areas (with dikes and walls) to give water more space and live with the flood. The consequence is the need to expand the relationship between the city, space and water and to improve stake-holders’ capacity to adapt to flood risk. These new guidelines for flood management require a good understanding about the impact of river morphology and anthropogenic changes on the flow regime in rivers and on the probability of inundation. Research Activities in the last dec-ades have considerably improved this understanding leading to sophisticated mathematical fluvial flow models. They range from 1-dimensional unsteady flow models to 2- and 3-dimensional hydrodynamic models, which make use of refined roughness concepts and turbu-lence approaches and accomplish a high resolution of the topography. The engineering world should have access to theses instruments in a most flexible and effi-cient way being able to combine 1- and 2-dimensional models (hybrid modeling), to select refined roughness concepts for vegetated flood plains (physically based roughness modeling) and to compare different turbulence approaches. Also the enormous amount of geographical data calls for an efficient and versatile data management and visualization tool. Thus present research concentrates more on model integration and data mining than model generation. Since two years a team of researchers at the Institute of River & Coastal Engineering at TUHH/Hamburg together with engineers from Björnsen Consulting Engineers Koblenz have developed such an integration shell for fluvial flow modelling called KALYPSO (www.kalypso.wb.tu-harburg.de). This Open Source software system for flood risk modelling is based on OGC-standards (www.opengeospaial.org) and provides an Open GIS user inter-face for map-based data access and input. A Web Map Service (WMS) based on an imple-mentation of the Open Source software deegree (www.deegree.org) provides access to GIS-data via Internet. With a work flow browser the user is guided through the tasks of flood modelling in a logical order including various tools for grid generation and boundary data management (pre-processing), for defining and starting the simulation cases (processing) and for analysing and visualization of the simulation results in inundation maps, flood damage maps and flood risk maps (post-processing). For the modelling of fluvial flow hybrid model-ling technique is available integrating 1- and 2-dimensional discretization elements and St. Venant and Shallow Water Equations. This new modelling shell for fluvial floods will be presented and its theoretical concept illus-trated. The hybrid modelling technology, the data mining functionality and the open GIS-based GUI will be explained and its application demonstrated at real cases of fluvial floods

 

Can Metallurgy Have a New Life?
Professor Z Fan (BCAST (Brunel Centre for Advanced Solidification Technology))
14 Feb 2008Harrison 215 Thursday 2pmAdvanced Technologies RI
Metallurgy, as a black art, has made marks on every single step of human civilization. Today, metallic materials have become the backbone of any nation’s economy. The global metals production is over 2 billion tonnes per annual. However, metallurgy as a research subject appears to be saturated, no major or exiting development; metallurgy as an industry is regarded as “sun-setting”; metallurgy as an educational subject cannot attract enough interests for young kids to sign in as metallurgical students. The overall picture for metallurgy is indeed very gloomy. In this presentation, I will take snap shots in the metallurgical history to examine critically the causes of the current problems. Possible solutions to such problems will then be presented in terms of new research directions, industrial reorganisation and new strategies for sustainable exploitation of natural resources. Some examples will be drawn from our own research to illustrate such new directions and new strategies.

 

Physical Properties of Palladium Thin Films in a an Hydrogen Atmosphere
R. Matelon (SECaM)
4 Feb 2008Harrrison 215 Monday 13:00Advanced Technologies RI (Internal)
TBA

 

Designing objects from the inside-out
Dr. Siavash H. Mahdavi (Complex Matters)
17 Jan 2008Harrison 106 Thurday 2PMAdvanced Technologies RI
Currently, when choosing a material to be used for a particular product, the best fit material for the task is found from a predefined set of materials (wood, steel, plastic…). Often, it is necessary to modify the original design of the product due to material constraints. At Complex Matters our approach is different. We think that it is better to look at the application first and then design a material, with the use of 3D imaging and rapid manufacturing, from the ground up, essentially designing our own microstructure. This results in a lighter, better suited product that can also exhibit material properties that were previously unattainable.

 

Chiral Smart Honeycombs
W. Miller (SECaM)
14 Jan 2008Harrison 203 Thursday 13:00Advanced Technologies RI (Internal)
TBA

 

Research Performed at the Aerospace Structures Laboratory Faculty of Aerospace Engineering
Prof. Haim Abraovich (Aerospace Structures Laboratory Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Technion, I.I.T, Haifa, Israel)
6 Dec 2007Harrison 106 Thursady 2PMAdvanced Technologies RI
The research performed at the Aerospace Structures Laboratory Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Technion,I.I.T, Haifa, Israel. consists on two main topics: stability and dynamics of thin walled laminated composite structures and smart structures applications. An overview will be given on both topics.

 

Research Performed at the Aerospace Structures Laboratory Faculty of Aerospace Engineering
Prof. Haim Abraovich (Aerospace Structures Laboratory Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Technion, I.I.T, Haifa, Israel)
6 Dec 2007Harrison 106 Thursady 2PMAdvanced Technologies RI
The research performed at the Aerospace Structures Laboratory Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Technion,I.I.T, Haifa, Israel. consists on two main topics: stability and dynamics of thin walled laminated composite structures and smart structures applications. An overview will be given on both topics.

 

The Fluid Dynamics of Lymphatic Vessels
A. McDonald (SECaM)
3 Dec 2007Harrison 209 Thursday 13:00Advanced Technologies RI (Internal)
TBA

 

Magnetic Recording & Hard Disk Drive Technology
B.C. Choo (SECaM)
14 Nov 2007Harrison 215 Wednesday 13:00Advanced Technologies RI (Internal)
TBA

 

Atomistic Simulation of Oxide/Oxide Interface
Andrada Maicaneanu (Babes-Bolyai University, Department of Chemical Technology, Romania)
8 Nov 2007Harrison 209 Thursady 2PMAdvanced Technologies RI
When supported, thin films demonstrate remarkable structural transformations, with important implications for catalysis, sensors, electrochemistry, semiconductors or superconductors. At present, the tools available to characterize solid-solid systems cannot provide atomic level resolution of, for example mixed screw-edge dislocations. Therefore atomistic simulation can provide an invaluable complement to experiment. In this work atomistic simulation was employed to generate models of oxide thin films. First an atom deposition methodology was used to create an SrO thin film on a BaO(001) support. The evolution of the thin film from small clusters (submonolayer coverage), to five atomic layers, which includes cracks in its structure, was studied. Specifically, information related to growth and nucleation processes can be explored using this methodology. Secondly an amorphisation and recrystallisation methodology was developed to explore the more complex system, that of ceria deposited on zirconia and yttrium stabilized zirconia. Simulated amorphisation and recrystallisation involves forcing the thin film to undergo a transformation into an amorphous state prior to recrystallising and therefore the recrystallisation process rather than the (perhaps artificial) initial structure will dictate the final structure. The recrystallisation process enables the evolution of all the important structural modifications as the thin film evolves structurally in response to the support. These include dislocations (pure edge and mixed screw-edge), dislocation networks, grain-boundaries and defects (interstitials, vacancies and substitutionals, including complex defect association) all within a single simulation cell.

 

Tailoring composite material structures at different length-scales
Hua-Xin Peng (University of Bristol)
11 Oct 2007Harrison 209 Thursday 2pmAdvanced Technologies RI
The conventional approach to the development of discontinuous composites is to pursue a homogeneous distribution of the micro-sized reinforcements in the form of particles, whiskers or short fibres in the matrix. This has enabled some advantages of composites over unreinforced monolithic materials to be realised to a limited extent by altering volume fraction, size and aspect ratio of the reinforcing phases. However, our recent analysis shows that a homogeneously discrete distribution of the reinforcement inevitably results in a property close to the lower bound of the optimal Hashin-Shtrikeman (HS) lower and upper bounds. Importantly, in principle, there exists a range of material structures that attain all the properties encapsulated by the HS lower and upper bounds. In other words, every point within this encapsulated region corresponds to at least one material structure or geometry. Unfortunately, most of such structures are not known. To identify these material structures required innovative thinking and is of major scientific importance. Two new approaches are proposed to achieve this, namely, (1) tailoring the phase contiguity at the Micro-scale, and (2) tailoring the phase spatial distribution at the Meso-scale. This is based on the fact that both our preliminary experimental results and the recently derived contiguity model have shown that a material structure with varying degree of continuity of the reinforcing phase will be more effective for property improvement. We have also shown that composites with a controlled inhomogeneous reinforcement distribution can result in significant property improvement and such composites effectively have a structure with two-hierarchies: the meso-composite contains a reinforcing phase which itself is a conventional micro-composite.

 

THE A-METRICS STORY, sub Angstrom distance measurement
Peter Armitage (SECaM)
17 Sep 2007Harrison 170 Thursday NoneAdvanced Technologies RI (Internal)
The story of an emerging new technology is presented. Starting from the initial invention of a sub-angstrom distance measuring device built in a persons living room, to its evaluation and testing at Exeter University and at the National Physical Laboratory in London, together with its subsequent exploitation in the USA. In addition to the technology, the presentation includes the human and business factors and obstacles faced by Inventors that develop revolutionary new technology. The presentation ends with a discussion about possible applications for the device, such as in Metrology (indentation creep), Meteorology (micro air pressure measurements), Geophysics (Earth tide and seismic sensors) and Astrophysics (Quantum gravity wave detection).

 

Development of Scaffolds and Bioreactors for Tissue Engineering and Stem Cell Bioprocessing
Julian Chaudhuri (University of Bath)
13 Sep 2007Harrison X-AT Conference Room (121) Thursday 2pmAdvanced Technologies RI
Mass transfer limitations of tissue engineering scaffolds are currently hindering the development of three-dimensional, clinically viable, tissue engineered constructs. In our laboratory we are investigating routes to improve the formation of viable tissue constructs. This presentation will describe our interests in developing both novel scaffolds and bioreactors, to support cell culture and improve nutrient transport to the proliferating cells. We are also using similar approaches to improve the handling and bioprocessing of stem cell populations.

 

Development of Scaffolds and Bioreactors for Tissue Engineering and Stem Cell Bioprocessing
Julian Chaudhuri (University of Bath)
13 Sep 2007Harrison X-AT Conference Room (121) Thursday 2pmAdvanced Technologies RI
Mass transfer limitations of tissue engineering scaffolds are currently hindering the development of three-dimensional, clinically viable, tissue engineered constructs. In our laboratory we are investigating routes to improve the formation of viable tissue constructs. This presentation will describe our interests in developing both novel scaffolds and bioreactors, to support cell culture and improve nutrient transport to the proliferating cells. We are also using similar approaches to improve the handling and bioprocessing of stem cell populations.

 

Bridging the Gap - Skeletal Regneration using mesenchymal populations - an interdisciplinary approach
Prof. Richard O C Oreffo (University of Southampton)
26 Jul 2007Harrison 107 Thursday 2:30Advanced Technologies RI
Given the demographic challenges of an ageing population combined with rising patient expectation and the growing emphasis placed on cost containment by healthcare providers, economic regenerative medicine approaches for skeletal regeneration is a major clinical and socio-economic need. Mesenchymal stem cells or human bone marrow stromal stem cells are defined as multipotent progenitor cells with the ability to generate cartilage, bone, muscle, tendon, ligament and fat. These primitive progenitors exist postnatally and exhibit stem cell characteristics, namely low incidence and extensive renewal potential. These properties in combination with their developmental plasticity have generated tremendous interest in the potential use of mesenchymal stem cells to replace damaged tissues. To date, relatively little is known concerning the phenotypic characteristics, whether from a morphological or biochemical standpoint whilst direct in vivo confirmation of the lineage potential and plasticity or interconversion potential that exists of mesenchymal stem cells and osteogenic progenitor cells remains Nevertheless, strategies harnessing tissue engineering approaches offer much promise for skeletal regeneration using mesenchymal populations. Upon isolation of an appropriate progenitor population, repair and reconstruction of bone defects present additional challenges to the orthopaedic, reconstructive and maxillo-facial surgeon including an ability to generate a functional microvascular network within engineered constructs to provide oxygen and nutrients that facilitates growth, differentiation, and tissue. The development of a functional vasculature is critical in respect to bone defects which can be extensive. To achieve this goal of skeletal regeneration, it will be necessary to harness the skills set from a variety of disciplines and there will be a need for close interactions between modelers, physical scientists, tissue engineers and clinicians.

 

Laser Assisted Manufacturing
Prof. Lin Li (University of Manchester)
12 Jul 2007Harrison 209 Thursday 2pmAdvanced Technologies RI
This presentation outlines some of the research work carried out by staff and students in the Laser Processing Research Centre, The University of Manchester. A focus of the presentation is on the innovative approaches for industrial problems, by “thinking outside the box”. The presentation includes subjects on new developments in laser cutting, laser drilling, laser assisted surface engineering, laser micro/nano manufacturing and hybrid laser-non-laser manufacturing technology development. It is hope the that presentation will inspire young engineers and researchers to innovative approaches for practical problems and an interest in high power laser engineering.

 

Engineering Civilisation from the Shadows
ICE - Institute of Civil Engineers - South West (6th Brunel International Lecture)
11 Jul 2007Royal Clarence Hotel - Wednesday 6pmInformatics RI

This lecture will examine world poverty and climate change in the 21st century, focusing on the role of engineering in addressing these challenges in relation to the Millennium Development Goals.

The lecture is free to attend but it is necessary to register attendance.

** Places are limited, so register early to avoid disappointment **

Contact Barbara Davey, Regional Administrator:
t +44 (0)1626 879 836
e barbara.davey@ice.org.uk
w ice-southwest.org.uk

ICE South West
10 Newton Road, Bishppsteignton
Teignmouth, Devon TQ14 9PN

 

Wealth without money
Dr. Adrian Bowyer (Bath Univeristy)
14 Jun 2007Harrison 209 Thursday 2pmAdvanced Technologies RI
Look at your computer setup. Imagine if you hooked up a 3D printer. Instead of printing on bits of paper this 3D printer makes real, robust, mechanical parts. To give you an idea of how robust these parts are think of Lego bricks and you're in the right area. You could make lots of useful stuff, but interestingly you could also make most of the parts to make another 3D printer. That would be a machine that could copy itself. This talk will be abut RepRap - the Replicating Rapid-prototyper. This 3D printer will make components using FDM Rapid Prototyping, which builds the component up in layers of plastic. This technology already exists, but the cheapest commercial machine would set you back £15,000. And it isn't even designed so that it can make itself. So what the RepRap team are doing is to develop and to give away the designs for a much cheaper machine with the novel capability of being able to self-copy (material costs will be about £300). We are distributing the RepRap machine entirely free to everyone using open-source - so, if you have one, you can make another and give it to a friend...

 

BLEEDING COMPOSITES - Autonomic Self-Healing
Dr. Ian P. Bond (University of Bristol)
10 May 2007Harrison 107 Thursday 2pmAdvanced Technologies RI
Self-healing is receiving an increasing amount of interest worldwide as a method to autonomously address damage in materials. In particular, for advanced fibre reinforced polymer composite materials it offers an alternative to applying conservative damage tolerant design and potentially could remove the need to perform temporary repairs to damaged structures. The concept of an autonomic self-healing composite material, where initiation of repair is integral to the material, is now being considered for many engineering applications. This bio-inspired concept offers the designer an ability to incorporate secondary functional materials capable of counteracting service degradation whilst still achieving the primary, usually structural, requirement. Most materials in nature are themselves self-healing composite materials. This seminar reviews the various self-healing technologies currently being developed for fibre reinforced polymeric composite materials, most of which are bioinspired. The most recent self-healing work has attempted to mimic natural healing using more detailed study of natural processes. The presentation will also discuss work at Bristol to develop self-healing fibre reinforced composites incorporating resin filled hollow fibres and vascular networks. A perspective on current and future self-healing approaches will be offered.

 

Lean Implementation: Challenges, and Future Research Direction
Dr Kim Hua Tan (Univeristy of Nottingham)
19 Apr 2007Harrison 209 Thursday 2pmAdvanced Technologies RI
A series of case studies have been, and are being, performed, that look at challenges in Lean Implementation. The focus is on understanding current issues to identifying future research direction. Results are presented from four recent studies.

 

Innovative phase-change pigging of difficult topologies
Professor Joe Quarini (University of Bristol)
8 Mar 2007Harrison 107 Thursday 2pmAdvanced Technologies RI
The brief presentation will introduce the concept of using phase changing slurries to act as pigs. The aims of these pigs are to hydraulically clean ducts and equipment as well as product recover and product separate material within complex processing plant. In its simplest form, this technology uses water with a freezing point depressant to produce a pumpable ice slurry with the attractive rheological property of behaving like a fluid when under dramatic shear gradients and looking more like a solid when shear is reduced. This means that the ‘ice pig’ is able to pass through orifice plates and then expand out to remove debris on the downstream side of the contraction! The ice pig can be used to clean very complicated geometries, including plate heat exchangers. It can be used as a separator between fluid streams as well as to recover fluid in ducts and equipment. Typically, it requires 100 to 1000 volumes of water to achieve the same level of ‘clean’ as one volume of the ice pig. What makes it really attractive is that it can never ever get stuck….it simply melts away. Further, it is environmentally very friendly, as it reduces waste, ameliorates the need for effluent treatment and reduces the amount and potency of harsh cleaning chemicals currently used. The potential beneficiaries include the food manufacturing sector, fine chemical producers, the medical/pharmaceutical industry and the utilities including water and power.

 

Development of a Performance Measurement System for JIT Enabled Manufacturing Environment
Dr Chike Oduoza (Univeristy of Wolverhampton)
8 Feb 2007Harrison 107 Thursday 2pmAdvanced Technologies RI
The quest for performance measurement and improvement in the manufacturing industry has been an important agenda over the last few decades. It forms an integral part of management control systems and it is used to gauge the performance of business enterprises. Performance Measurement Systems (PMS) are most successful when they are integrated with the company mission, vision, values and strategy. Under intensive global competitive pressure, most companies around the world have applied innovative thinking to management and begun to examine technology that can lead to improved manufacturing flexibility. Just-in-time manufacturing (JIT), and lean manufacturing are thought to be some of the most important performance enhancing management innovations during the last two decades. However, to date, relatively little research has determined what PMS is consistent with the adoption of lean manufacturing systems such as JIT. Empirical research involving the study of JIT consists primarily of case studies of specific organizations, which have implemented JIT philosophy, however there is no methodology for the measurement of success or failure of this technique or the effect of relevant parameters on its successful implementation The aim of this study is to present a methodology for performance measurement in a JIT enabled manufacturing environment and will identify JIT drivers that are key to influencing performance in a typical production environment. Dynamic simulation and modelling, and a variety of management tools will be applied to determine the impact of typical variables such as TQM, line balancing, set up time etc on enterprise productivity and efficiency. The outcome is a model that would serve as a guide to researchers and industry practitioners on the approach to effective JIT implementation.

 

High Productivity Welding for the Trans Alaska Gas Pipeline
Professor Stewart Williams (Cranfield University)
23 Nov 2006Harrison 215 Thursday 2pmAdvanced Technologies RI
Installation of new pipelines is predicted to grow at a rapid rate over the next twenty years, due in part to the increase use worldwide of combined cycle power generation plant using natural gas as fuel. The need to construct large diameter pipelines over long distances has led to an increased demand to improve the productivity of pipeline girth welding. The Welding Engineering Research Centre (WERC) at Cranfield University has been researching into to this application for several with the work split into three phases:  Phase 1 – High efficiency automated dual tandem GMA (CAPS) for improved productivity in the fill passes (4 instead of 16)  Phase 2 – Application to very high strength steel to reduce the pipe wall thickness from 25mm to 20mm (and therefore material costs (500,00 tonnes less))  Phase 3 – Fibre laser or hybrid fibre laser welding of the root pass – higher speeds. The talk will describe how gas pipelines are manufactured, provide a brief history of pipeline welding, and describe how the first two phases have implemented along with the current research into phase three. The talk will be preceded by a brief introduction to Cranfield University and the current research programme of the WERC.

 

High Productivity Welding for the Trans Alaska Gas Pipeline
Professor Stewart Williams (Cranfield University)
23 Nov 2006Harrison 215 Thursday 2pmAdvanced Technologies RI
Installation of new pipelines is predicted to grow at a rapid rate over the next twenty years, due in part to the increase use worldwide of combined cycle power generation plant using natural gas as fuel. The need to construct large diameter pipelines over long distances has led to an increased demand to improve the productivity of pipeline girth welding. The Welding Engineering Research Centre (WERC) at Cranfield University has been researching into to this application for several with the work split into three phases:  Phase 1 – High efficiency automated dual tandem GMA (CAPS) for improved productivity in the fill passes (4 instead of 16)  Phase 2 – Application to very high strength steel to reduce the pipe wall thickness from 25mm to 20mm (and therefore material costs (500,00 tonnes less))  Phase 3 – Fibre laser or hybrid fibre laser welding of the root pass – higher speeds. The talk will describe how gas pipelines are manufactured, provide a brief history of pipeline welding, and describe how the first two phases have implemented along with the current research into phase three. The talk will be preceded by a brief introduction to Cranfield University and the current research programme of the WERC.

 

Piezoelectric composites: Properties and applications
Chris Bowen (University of Bath)
9 Nov 2006Harrison 107 Thursday 2pmAdvanced Technologies RI
This presentation will provide an overview of the properties and applications of piezoelectric composites. Porous piezoelectrics ceramics with '3-3' connectivity will be described for hydrophone applications and the mechanism by which porosity increases the performance of the material for SONAR applications will be discussed. These porous piezoelectrics will also be infiltrated with a conductive phase to create model conductor-dielectric composites in an attempt to understand the origins of the 'universal dielectric response'; a property observed in many materials. Both modelling and experimental results will be presented.

 

TBA
TBA
12 Oct 2006Harrison None Thursday 2pmAdvanced Technologies RI

 

TBA
TBA
14 Sep 2006Harrison None Thursday 2pmAdvanced Technologies RI

 

TBA
TBA
10 Aug 2006Harrison None Thursday 2pmAdvanced Technologies RI

 

TBA
TBA
13 Jul 2006Harrison None Thursday 2pmAdvanced Technologies RI

 

Piezoelectric composites: Properties and applications
Dr Chris Bowen (Materials Research Centre, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bath)
8 Jun 2006Harrison None Thursday 2pmAdvanced Technologies RI
This presentation will provide an overview of the properties and applications of piezoelectric composites. Porous piezoelectrics ceramics with '3-3' connectivity will be described for hydrophone applications and the mechanism by which porosity increases the performance of the material for SONAR applications will be discussed. These porous piezoelectrics will also be infiltrated with a conductive phase to create model conductor-dielectric composites in an attempt to understand the origins of the 'universal dielectric response'; a property observed in many materials. Both modelling and experimental results will be presented.

 

Piezoelectric composites: Properties and applications
Dr Chris Bowen (Materials Research Centre, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bath)
8 Jun 2006Harrison None Thursday 2pmAdvanced Technologies RI
This presentation will provide an overview of the properties and applications of piezoelectric composites. Porous piezoelectrics ceramics with '3-3' connectivity will be described for hydrophone applications and the mechanism by which porosity increases the performance of the material for SONAR applications will be discussed. These porous piezoelectrics will also be infiltrated with a conductive phase to create model conductor-dielectric composites in an attempt to understand the origins of the 'universal dielectric response'; a property observed in many materials. Both modelling and experimental results will be presented.

 

An overview of the research activities at IIT Kanpur: Hydrological Modelling
Dr. Ashu Jain (ITT Kanpur, India)
1 Jun 2006Harrison 170 Tuesday 2pmInformatics RI
"In this talk I plan to first give a very brief background of the Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs), IIT Kanpur, and the department of civil engineering at IIT Kanpur. The research activities of the Hydraulics and Water Resources Engineering (HWRE) group at IIT Kanpur will be presented. The focus will be on hydrological modelling. Some case studies on water demand modelling and hydrological modelling will be presented. The methods employed include data-driven techniques of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and Genetic Algorithms (GAs). Special issues such as difficulties in ANN training, integration of conceptual and data-driven approaches, etc. will be discussed and the results presented. If the time permits, a case study on the exploration of physical significance in trained ANN hydrologic models will also be presented."

 

Near Infrared Optical Tomography for the detection of breast cancer
Dr Hamid Dehghani (School of Physics)
11 May 2006Harrison None Thursday 2pmAdvanced Technologies RI

 

Remote Magnetic Sensing of People (Advanced Technologies Research Institute (ATRI) research seminar)
Professor Des Mapps (Centre of Expertise in Electromagnetic Sensors, University of Plymouth)
9 Feb 2006Harrison 203 Thursday 2pmEngineering

 

Green Ceramic Machining: A Top-down Approach to Rapid Prototyping of Ceramics
Dr Bo Su (Department of Oral and Dental Science, University of Bristol)
12 Jan 2006Harrison 203 Thursday 2pmEngineering

 

Raster-based models for flood inundation: Simple solutions to a complex problem?
Dr Neil Hunter (School of Geographical Sciences, University of Bristol)
1 Dec 2005Harrison 203 Thursday 2pmEngineering

 

Hydroinformatics Technologies for Urban Water Systems Planning and Management
Dr Zoran Vojinovic (UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education (IHE-Delft))
3 Nov 2005Harrison 203 Thursday 2pmEngineering

 

URBAN WATER MANAGEMENT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES - RESEARCH@WEDC
Dr V. Vairavamoorthy (Loughborough)
5 May 2005Harrison 203 Thursday 2pmEngineering
The presentation will cover research currently being undertaken in the area of Hydroinformatics at WEDC, Department of Civil and Building Engineering, Loughborough University. Research is currently being undertaken to develop decision support systems for low and middle income countries in the areas of: water supply management; risk and reliability of water supply systems; watershed models for optimal plans of spatial allocation of water and land resources; hydraulic simulation of irrigation systems using open source technologies like Java and MySQL. The presentation will provide a brief description of two example research projects that attempt to support the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDG’S). The MDG’s have set clear targets for reducing poverty, hunger, illiteracy, disease, discrimination against women and environmental degradation by 2015. Progress towards the key MDGs will be accelerated through improved environmental health conditions, in particular access to water and sanitation and environmental sustainability. The two example research projects contribute in a small way to the Target 10 of the MDGs as the first is in relation to improving access to water (quantity) and the second is in relation to improving access to improved water quality. Both research projects involve: development of appropriate technology for the particular problem in the developing country; involve a strong software component; involve a capacity building element. The two example research projects that will be presented will be: Guidelines for “Design of water supply systems operating under water scarcity conditions” –In many countries the availability of water is either inadequate or restricted due to difficulties such as power cuts. An alternative approach to design of these systems has been developed which employs a modified network analysis procedure and utilises formal optimisation techniques to ensure the maximum uniformity in supply. Guidelines for “Water quality risk assessment & management in piped water” - This concerns the risk of contaminant intrusion into water distribution systems (WDS) under extreme conditions (e.g. pipe break, low etc.) which is one of the main reasons for water quality degradation. The presentation will describe the development of IRA-WDS, a new and innovative GIS based tool for managing water quality in urban distribution systems in developing countries. The outputs from IRS-WDS are a series of risk maps that indicate the risk of contaminant intrusion in the various parts of the water distribution system.

 

Design Optimization and Stochastic Analysis: Issues of Commercial Software Development
Professor Vassili Toropov (Altair Engineering Ltd.)
15 Apr 2005Harrison H203 Friday 14.00Engineering
This talk will be on design optimization and stochastic analysis as seen by Altair Engineering, an international commercial software developer, vendor and consulting company. Examples from its customers will demonstrate how such software tools are used in product development in automotive, aerospace, consumer goods, medical, offshore and other sectors.

 

Future issues in urban drainage modelling: urban flooding and integrated approaches
Prof. Theo Schmitt (Technical University of Kaiserslautern)
24 Mar 2005Harrison 203 Thursday 2pmEngineering
After a short introduction of my group at Kaiserslautern University, I would briefly outline the development of urban drainage modelling and then focus on two specific issues: (1) Modelling of urban flooding has become an important issue elated to the European Standard EN 752 and the flooding frequencies ecommended for urban drainage systems. A detailed approach coupling hydraulic models for surface and sewer flow will be presented. (2) Integrated modelling of the urban wastewater system has been pushed during the last decade to consider all wastewater related sources of pollution load discharged to receiving waters. Aspects of integrated modelling will be illustrated by linking a detailed pollution load model (drainage system) and IWA's Activated Sludge Model (wastewater treatment plant).

 

Effect of heat release on the dissipation of scalar fluctuations in turbulent premixed flames
Dr N. Swaminathan (University of Cambridge)
10 Mar 2005Harrison 203 Thursday 2pmEngineering
The scalar dissipation rate signifies the local mixing rate and thus plays a vital role in the modelling of reaction rate in turbulent flames. The local mixing rate is influenced by the turbulence, the chemical and the molecular diffusion processes which are strongly coupled in turbulent premixed flames. Thus, the model for the mean scalar dissipation rate, thus the mean reaction rate, should include the contributions of these processes. Earlier models for the scalar dissipation rate includes only a turbulence time scale. In this study, we derive exact transport equations for the instantaneous and the mean scalar dissipation rates. Using these equations, a simple algebraic model for the mean scalar dissipation rate is obtained. This model includes a chemical as well as a turbulence time scale and its prediction compares well with direct numerical simulation results. Reynolds--Averaged--Navier--Stokes calculations of a test flame using the model obtained here show that the contribution of dilatation to local turbulent mixing rate is important to predict the propagation phenomenon in turbulent premixed flames.

 

Ultrasound attenuation as a quantitative measure of fracture healing
Dr Sabina Gheduzzi (University of Bristol)
9 Dec 2004Harrison 203 Thursday 2pmEngineering
The monitoring of fracture healing still relies upon the judgement of callus formation and on the manual assessment of the stiffness of the fracture. A diagnostic tool capable of quantitatively measuring healing progression of a fracture would allow the fine-tuning of the treatment regime. Ultrasound attenuation measurements were adopted as a possible method of assessing the healing process in human long bones. The method involves exciting ultrasonic waves at 200 kHz in the bone and measuring the re-radiation along the bone and across the fracture zone. Seven cadaveric femora were tested in-vitro in intact form and after creating a transverse fracture by sawing through the cortex. The effects of five different fracture types were investigated. A partial fracture, corresponding to a 50% cut through the cortex, a closed fracture and fractures of widths varying between 1, 2 and 4 mm were investigated. The introduction of a fracture was found to produce a dramatic effect on the amplitude of the signal. Ultrasound attenuation was found to be sensitive to the presence of a fracture, even when the fracture was well reduced. It would therefore appear feasible to adopt attenuation across a fracture as a quantitative measurement of fracture healing.

 

Dynamics, Damping and Defects in Thin Ferromagnetic Films
Robert D. McMichael (US National Institute of Standards and Technology)
29 Oct 2004Newman E Friday 11amEngineering
Modern disk drives can read and write bits every two nanoseconds, a time scale very similar to the magnetic damping time of the ferromagnetic metals used in the heads. The damping characteristics are also important for thermally-driven magnetic noise in sensors. Furthermore, it seems likely that damping will limit data rates in magnetic random access memory, since the magnetization in a memory cell must be allowed to settle between switching events. For all of these applications, measurements of damping are important, and these measurements are most commonly made by ferromagnetic resonance linewidth. The two problems that complicate measurements of damping by ferromagnetic resonance are: 1) defects contribute to the linewidth, so that the linewidth is the combined effect of defects and damping, and 2) the form of the damping itself is the subject of some debate.

 

Investigation and monitoring of tunnelling works at Lewes, incorporating the ABI Code of Practice for Tunnelling.
Dr Robert Hodgson (Black & Veatch)
14 Oct 2004Harrison 203 Thursday 2pmEngineering

 

Quantification of the effect of flow on the initial processes of bacterial attachment.
Mr John Boyle
20 May 2004Harrison 203 Thursday 2pmEngineering

 

Modulling the Micromechanics of Auxetics (Stealing ideas from granular mechanics)
Dr Neil Gaspar
13 May 2004Harrison 203 Thursday 2pmEngineering

 

The aerodynamics of airborne pollen: how do pines pollinate? (Or, is nature really that stupid?)
Dr James Cresswell and Dr Gavin Tabor
6 May 2004Harrison 203 Thursday 2pmEngineering

 

Future Floods - the Foresight flood and coastal defence project.
Professor Richard Ashley
5 May 2004Harrison 203 Thursday 9.15amEngineering

 

Imprecise methods for analysing uncertainty in climate projections and impacts.
Dr Jim W Hall
29 Apr 2004Harrison 203 Thursday 2pmEngineering