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Past Engineering Seminars by Reverse Date

 


Engineering Seminars (Historical)

Title: New Computational techniques for modeling Acoustic Fluids and Wave Propagation
Professor S Gopalakrishnan (Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore)
9 Jun 2011Harrison H170 (3D Visualisation Suite) Thursday 2pmAdvanced Technologies RI
In this talk, new computational models for studying dynamics of acoustic fluids will be presented. The talk will cover two different computational models, namely the conventional finite elements and the frequency domain based spectral finite elements. Two different fluid finite element formulations based on Lagrangian frame of reference, one based on h-type formulation and the second based on Legendre's time domain spectral elements will be presented in this talk. One of the problems associated with h-type Lagrangian FEM is that they suffer from mesh locking problems due to fluid incompressibility. In addition to mesh locking problems, these elements exhibit a numerous zero energy eigen modes due to fluid circulation. To circumvent these zero energy modes, the fluid is made irrotational, which will further stiffen the formulated fluid element. Hence the formulated h-type will suffer from two different constraints, one due to fluid incompressibility and the second due to fluid irrotationality. The main objective of the first part of the talk is to formulate Lagrangian h-type FEM that is free from mesh locking due to twin constraints. In this work, formulation of both 2-D and 3-D elements will be presented. In the second part of the talk, Lagrangian FEM based on Lengendre's basis functions is presented. Here, it will be seen that the choice of different integration scheme for the volumetric stiffness and rotational stiffness will not only eliminate mesh locking, but also exhibit superior convergence property. The last part of the talk will address the formulation of Spectral FEM, especially for studying wave propagation in acoustic fluids. The talk will cover a number of examples that show the computational superiority of Spectral Fem over conventional FEM. The use of the formulated elements for fluid-structure interaction problems will be addressed in this talk.

 

Title: Damage Tolerance Optimization of Tapered Composite Laminates
Giuliano Allegri (Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Bristol)
12 May 2011Harrison H170 (3D Visualisation Suite) Thursday 2pmAdvanced Technologies RI
Tapering structural element is necessary in order to optimize specific stiffness and strength. Tapered metallic parts can be manufactured by casting or machining, whilst for fibre reinforced composites tapering always requires terminating, i.e. dropping-off, plies. Ply drop-offs act as stress raisers since they represent discontinuities for the laminate geometrical arrangement and elastic properties. Therefore ply terminations promote delamination and thus compromise the laminate strength and damage tolerance performance. An analytical solution for the calculation of the energy release rates associated with delaminations emanated from ply drop-offs has been developed and employed to optimize the termination sequences in tapered laminates for maximum damage tolerance performance under given geometric constraints. This optimization task has been proved to be analogous to the classical "travel salesman" problem, provided than a suitable fracture energy metric is introduced. Different optimization techniques have been employed, including genetic algorithms and simulated annealing with stochastic tunnelling. The optimization results can be synthesised in a set of "robust" design principles which have been implemented in a fuzzy logic framework in order to provide optimized configurations at limited computational costs.

 

Title: Developing a Strategic Framework for the Successful Implementation of Additive Manufacturing Technologies
Stephen Mellor (Engineering, CEMPS, University of Exeter)
5 May 2011Harrison H170 (3D Visualisation Suite) Thursday 1pmAdvanced Technologies RI (Internal)
It has long been understood that innovation in production technology can be used strategically as a powerful competitive weapon, enabling a manufacturing organisation to produce products that are better, cheaper and made faster than the competition. However, the wrong technology, or even the right technology poorly implemented, can be disastrous. Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies have played an important role in product development (Rapid Prototyping) for many years, and we are beginning to see their use in production applications, albeit on a limited scale. This research proposes that the only similarity between using these technologies for prototyping and production is the process itself. Secondly, that there remains a significant gap in our knowledge of when and how to implement AM, and that this knowledge is key to increasing the adoption and diffusion of these technologies. This research project investigates the process of AM implementation over its life-cycle, identifying and developing an understanding of the factors influencing its success and failure. Beginning with a framework developed from the process technology implementation literature and existing AM implementation studies, exploratory case studies are used to test this framework and develop implementation roadmaps.

 

Title: Pressure response analysis in head injury
Christopher Pearce (Engineering, CEMPS, University of Exeter)
7 Apr 2011Harrison H170 (3D Visualisation Suite) Thursday 1pmAdvanced Technologies RI (Internal)
Head injury is a significant cause of death and disability in society. Recent advances in Finite Element (FE) modelling techniques can provide insight and aid understanding of the trauma mechanisms of head injury. A new approach to generating bio-fidelic numerical models is presented based on a technique adapted from the marching cubes approach. This approach automates the generation of meshes based on 3D scan data and allows for a number of different structures (e.g. skull, scalp, brain) to be meshed simultaneously. The numerical models were used to validate an analytical model developed by one of the authors and good agreement was observed. Under certain impact conditions low mass impactors were found to produce large transient peaks of positive and negative pressure in the brain. A sensitivity study was conducted to investigate the robustness of this effect across a wide range of impact conditions. Numerical models of increased bio-fidelity were then analyzed and the transient pressure amplification behaviour for certain impact conditions was again observed; this provides confidence that the behaviour holds true as the model becomes more realistic. Beyond its significance in the area of head impact biomechanics, the study has demonstrated that numerical models generated from 3D medical data can be used effectively to simulate physical processes. This is particularly useful when considering the risks, difficulties and ethical issues involved when using cadavers.

 

Title: Multi-objective Optimisation in Additive Layer Manufacturing processes
Giovanni Strano (Engineering, CEMPS, University of Exeter)
3 Mar 2011Harrison H170 (3D Visualisation Suite) Thursday 1pmAdvanced Technologies RI (Internal)
Selective Laser Sintering (SLS), as one of the most widely used additive manufacturing technologies, represents a valuable manufacturing process in the aerospace, automotive and medical industries. Due to the preheating requirement for the SLS of polymer materials, one of the main challenges is to reduce the energy required for the part building process and at the same time maintain the surface quality of the parts, represented by surface roughness, as this has aesthetic and functional importance for industrial applications. These objectives are competing criteria and are significantly influenced by the build orientation of the parts in the SLS process. This study investigates a computational methodology for the simultaneous minimization of surface roughness and energy consumption in the SLS process, to locate the optimal trade-off set between these objectives, known as Pareto set; thus, it provides with a consistent decision support system for the identification of optimal build orientations for Selective Laser Sintering. The methodology and the mathematical approach presented are generally applicable to powder bed based ALM platforms such as Selective Laser Melting (SLM) and Electron Beam Melting (EBM). The multi-objective approach, in addition to the studied objectives, can be employed for the optimisation of more targets, for example by including the minimisation of anisotropy in mechanical proprieties of part produced by any ALM platforms.

 

Many Objective Optimisation of Engineering Problems
Dr. Evan J. Hughes (Department of Informatics and Sensors, University of Cranfield)
19 Jan 2011Harrison 170 Wednesday 3pmComputer Science
Most real engineering problems are characterised by having many criteria that are to be optimised simultaneously. Unfortunately the criteria are often conflicting and so have to be considered as a many-objective optimisation process in order to derive a trade-off surface of the available optima solutions. Although a plethora of algorithms have been developed for optimising two-objective problems, many of them do not work well as the number of objectives increase. The talk introduces some of the new algorithms that have been developed for investigating many-objective problems and describes how the methods have been used to advance the design of airborne fire-control and surveillance radars.

 

Title: Quality in Supply Chains - Good Relationships Needed for Successful Engineering Business
Pinar Baban (Engineering, CEMPS, University of Exeter)
13 Jan 2011Harrison H170 (3D Visualisation Suite) Thursday 2pmAdvanced Technologies RI (Internal)
This research focuses on improving the performance of supply chains with regard to quality. Recent examples from industry such as Toyota gas pedal failure and global banking crisis as an outcome of the lack of common rules over the national and international financial regulatory norms show that supply chains, operating in both manufacturing and service, are still experiencing problems. Supply chain structure along with relationship factors proposes a potential for a successful integration in a supply chain for which supply chain quality can be defined. As supply chain quality is considered as a relatively unexplored area, a contribution to the literature would be possible by developing a conceptual framework in which formulation, centralisation, communication and relationship factors are simultaneously adapted in constructing the conceptual model. Main purpose of the research is to transcend the quality concept of an organisation to the supply chain level with reference to this model. The case study method is used to test the conceptual model. Data collected is to be analysed in order to verify the model so that practical implications and guidelines for firms operating in various fields ranging from manufacturing to service sectors could be formulated.

 

Title: Carbon Based Memories: Understanding the observed switching behaviour at the nanoscale
Peiman Hosseini (Engineering, CEMPS, University of Exeter)
2 Dec 2010Harrison H170 (3D Visualisation Suite) Thursday 1pmAdvanced Technologies RI (Internal)
The ever increasing demand for data storage capacity has pushed the current dominating technologies to their respective limits. Research groups around the world are investing enormous effort and resources to develop the next generation of memory devices that target 100 billion $ market currently shared between HD, DRAM and FLASH. Following the discovery of fullerenes Carbon continues to receive great scientific attention thanks to its extraordinary chemical and physical properties. Given the right environmental conditions carbon can exist as stable graphite or metastable Diamond, these allotropes have completely different electrical conductivity making them appealing for memory systems. The aim of our research project is to induce change in nano-scale regions of thin carbon films and to characterize and understand the nature of the observed switching effect that results.

 

Title: Proper Use of Unit Cells in Micromechanical Finite Element Analyses of Materials with Periodic Microstructures
Professor Shuguang Li (Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham)
11 Nov 2010Harrison 170 (3D Visulisation Suite) Thursday 2pmAdvanced Technologies RI
Unit cells have been increasingly employed in various analyses, in particular, for micromechanical analyses of composite materials where periodicities feature the microstructure, often in conjunction of the use of finite elements. The formulation of a unit cell could start as if it was a trivial exercise, at least as often perceived. However, it soon becomes overwhelming to such an extent that most attempts have gone either futile or incorrect, as is often observed in open literature, including research papers from reputable academic journals. Some typical examples of this kind will be cited to set the scene for the discussion. The lecture is intended to draw some clear guidelines for proper formulation of unit cells in a systematic manner, which rests firmly on the concept of symmetries and their physical properties. Significant implications of properly formulated unit cells on the pre-processing (meshing) and post-processing (e.g. derivation of effective properties) will be discussed.

 

Title: Fullerene-Like WS2 Nanoparticles and Nanocomposites: Processing, Characterisation and Applications
Dr Hong Chang (Engineering, CEMPS, University of Exeter)
4 Nov 2010Harrison H170 (3D Visualisation Suite) Thursday 1pmAdvanced Technologies RI (Internal)
A fullerene is any molecule composed entirely of carbon, in the form of a hollow sphere, ellipsoid, or tube. Following the discovery of carbon fullerenes and nanotubes, closed-cage non-carbon fullerene-like nanoparticles or nanotubes were discovered and they were given the name of inorganic fullerene-like materials (abbreviated as IFs). This research is focused on the processing and characterisation of WS2 IFs and their nanocomposites. The presentation will begin with a review on the extraordinary properties and potential applications of WS2 IFs, followed by the research motivation, periodic research progresses and plans for future work.

 

Title: Mechanical Properties as a function of Nano-Architecture
Dr Dean C. Sayle (Department of Engineering and Applied Science, Cranfield University)
14 Oct 2010Harrison H170 (3D Visualisation Suite) Thursday 2pmAdvanced Technologies RI
If we build an arch not out of stone bricks, but using NanoBuilding Blocks will it have unprecedented load carrying capacity? Here, we formulate ‘Engineering Rules at the Nanoscale’ using HPC. Specifically, we use atomistic computer simulation to generate models of nanomaterials and calculate their mechanical properties. In particular, nanoparticle building blocks are positioned at crystallographic positions to facilitate a particular (nano)architecture and the mechanical strength calculated using molecular dynamics simulation.

 

Crystal inspired beam networks with negative elastic properties
Tom Hughes (Engineering, CEMPS, University of Exeter)
7 Oct 2010Harrison H170 (3D Visualisation Suite) Thursday 1pmAdvanced Technologies RI (Internal)
An astonishing result was published in 1998: far from being the rare property it was then thought to be, negative Poisson's ratio behaviour in metals is actually quite common [1]. Of the 32 cubic metals investigated, around 69% were found to exhibit auxetic behaviour when strained in the [110] direction however, this paper only proposed inconclusive explanations and a limited mechanism. Since then, no study has revisited the issue, and no one has answered the really puzzling question, which is "why are one third of cubic metals NOT auxetic?". In this work we first study the elastic properties of cubic metals using atomistic modelling, and then of beam frameworks inspired by cubic metals using finite element analysis To determine the elastic constants for a range of 24 body-centred and face-centred metallic crystals, we use two-body and many-body classical potentials. The elastic constants can then be used to calculate the Poisson's ratio of the crystals for a strain in any direction. The simpler two-body potentials obey the Cauchy relation, and consequently always predict a negative Poisson's ratio. Many-Body potentials, such as Finnis-Sinclair, are able to more accurately predict the elastic constants of the crystals and Poisson's ratios are generally found to be in agreement with experimental data published in the literature. The deformation mechanisms for both positive and negative Poisson's ratio in body-centred and face-centred cubic structures are also determined. The bond network in cubic metals is also used as inspiration for truss structures composed of bending beams. By modelling the first, second and third nearest neighbour bonds in a cubic crystal as beams of varying stiffness, it has been possible to show (using the finite element method) how the Poisson's ratio of the structure changes from negative to positive according to the relative stiffness of the three classes of beams. This paradigm is then extended to investigate structures of lower symmetry, in a bid to find novel engineering structures with negative Poisson's ratio. [1] Baughman et al. Negative Poisson's ratios as a common feature of cubic metals. Nature 392, 362-365 (1998)

 

Title: Infra-red imaging in experimental mechanics
Professor Janice Barton (School of Engineering Sciences, University of Southampton)
1 Jul 2010Harrison H170 (3D Vis Suite) Thursday 1pmAdvanced Technologies RI
Infra-red imaging is usually associated with fairly the crude temperature measurements made to assess the condition of structures and for thermal based non-destructive evaluations. Highly sensitive infra-red detectors are now available that allow high spatial resolutions along with temperature resolutions of about 20 mK. If lock-in processing is used the temperature resolution can be improved to 2 mK. A technique that takes advantage of the high spatial and temperature resolution of modern IR detectors is TSA (thermoelastic stress analysis). Here the infra-red (IR) detector is used to 'measure' the small reversible temperature change associated with the thermoelastic effect from a component subjected to cyclic load. The detector output signal is related to the changes in the sum of the principal stresses on the surface of the material. Therefore the 'thermal image' provides full-field data that is a function of the surfaces stresses. For orthotropic materials, such as laminated composite structures, the small temperature change is related to the changes in the stresses in the principal material directions on the surface of the material. The data is recorded and processed in a matter of seconds enabling practically real-time studies and hence providing clear benefit in damage evaluations. In the presentation the background theory underpinning the application of TSA is provided. The focus of the presentation is application of infra-red imaging to polymer composites, sandwich structures and foam core materials. Examples of applications as well as some more fundamental physical issues will be presented.

 

Control Engineering Approaches to Systems Biology Research
Declan Bates (University of Exeter)
4 May 2010Harrison 170 Monday 4pmApplied Mathematics

 

A Taxonomy of Agility Strategies in UK Companies
Rundong Wang (Engineering, CEMPS, University of Exeter)
1 Apr 2010Harrison 170 (3D Vis Suite) Thursday 1pmAdvanced Technologies RI (Internal)
In the past decade, significant changes have taken place in manufacturing industry. The changes are characterized by the increased intensity of global outsourcing and global marketing, the rising energy and material costs and problems associated with the quality and security of the supply networks. Under this circumstance, firms have been forced to adjust their strategic manufacturing emphases and seek more effective strategies to survive from the dynamic and rapidly changing marketplace. Agility, that aims to provide firms with competitive capabilities to prosper from dynamic and continuous changes in the business environment, has been widely accepted as a prevailing strategy. Whilst most previous work has considered agility as a holistic concept, this study applies a taxonomical approach to identify if there are clear patterns in companies' needs for agility and in their emphases of agility capabilities. Furthermore, the most significant differences between agility strategies with respect to supply chain design and management practices are examined. In the presentation, the initial identification of existing patterns of agility strategies will be described. Typical cases will be briefly depicted with explanations of strategies and practices they adopted.

 

Rainfall-Runoff Simulation and Groundwater Recharge in Arid Regions
Prof. Moshen Sherif (College of Engineering, UAE University)
17 Mar 2010Harrison 203 Wednesday 3pmInformatics RI
In arid and semi-arid regions, rainfall events are limited and random. Extreme events are more frequent and, hence, detention and retention dams are usually built across the main wadis to intercept surface water runoff and recharge the groundwater systems. In this presentation, the focus is devoted to the simulation of surface water runoff and groundwater recharge due to water storage in the lakes of dams. HEC-HMS model is used to simulate the surface water runoff and water storage in the lakes of three main dams due to rainfall events in the northern area of the United Arab Emirates. Within the calibration process of HEC-HMS, the simulated water flow and storage in the dams were compared with the observed data for several storm events. Using the calibrated model, a family of rainfall-runoff/storage curves was developed based on the duration and intensity of rainfall events. These curves can be used for prediction of surface water runoff in the three wadis and water storage in the dams in response to different rainfall events. The groundwater recharge was simulated using MODFLOW. The model was calibrated and verified using different data sets and the results of groundwater levels were found to be in good agreement with the observed data. The model was also used to assess the increase of groundwater recharge due to the construction of dams. Significant amounts of the infiltrated water are retained in the unsaturated zone.

 

Title: The Role of Particle Cavitation in the Toughening of Rubber-modified Epoxy Adhesives
Professor Felicity Guild (Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College London)
11 Mar 2010Harrison 170 (3D Vis Suite) Thursday 2pmAdvanced Technologies RI
Many investigations into the source of toughness in rubber toughened adhesives have associated enhanced toughness with the process of rubber particle cavitation. Our model for rubber particle cavitation has now been established using an energy balance approach. This model used a combination of finite element simulations and experimental results. Predictions for rubber particle cavitation in both uniaxial loading conditions and the triaxial loading conditions ahead of a crack and the dependence on particle size will be presented and compared with experimental results. The energy contributions arising from the different energy sources can be evaluated. These predictions for particle cavitation allow the role of this process in the overall toughness of these materials to be assessed.

 

Giant Magnetoresistive and Multiferroic Thin Film Development Using a New Sputtering Technique
Denh Tran (College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, University of Exeter)
4 Mar 2010Harrison 170 (3D Vis Suite) Thursday 1pmAdvanced Technologies RI (Internal)
A new sputter deposition technique will be described. This technology, developed at Plasma Quest Ltd., is designed for high rate sputtering and uniform erosion of the target. This gives the name of the technique 'High Target Utilsation Sputtering' (HiTUS). Other key advantages of this technology will be highlighted. This seminar will also review the use of HiTUS for Giant Magnetoresistive thin films and the interesting new area of multiferroics.

 

The confidence to build - Some thoughts on engineering software
Prof. Bill Harvey
26 Jan 2010Harrison 170 Tuesday 2pmInformatics RI
Engineering software began about 1950 with some of the earliest available digital computers. It became possible to analyse complex structures. Since then, the poawer of computers has grown at an almost frightening rate. Endless bells and whistles have been added to analytical software. In recent years ther have been attempts to couple CAD programs to analysis and call the package design. But engineering design is not about deciding on a geometry then asking the computer where the forces go. Real design is about deciding where you want the forces to flow and then arranging the geometry to make that happen. The same thing is true in CFD but that is not where I work. It is long past time that we realised and released the power of computers to help with design insteead of merely providing analytical results. That will involve fundamental changes in our vision of what we want to do. Bill's work is chiefly in structural assessment and in this field, surprisingly, the problem is greater. When designing a new building, if the analysis says this bit is too weak, a stroke of a pen (or mouse) is enough to make it stronger. If the structure is already there we often need to know where the forces might really go rather than where they could go if they need to. The seminar will cover some of the issues described above in the light of the sort of exploratory analysis Bill uses for his assessment work.

 

Heat transfer in turbomachinery predictions with an open source CFD code
Cosimo Bianchini (Faculty of Engineering, University of Florence)
1 Oct 2009Harrison 170 Thursday 1pmAdvanced Technologies RI (Internal)
Due to the continuously growing need of power and efficiency for turbo engines, combustion chamber temperature has far overcome the metal critical temperature indeed more and more loading the combustor liner and first stages cooling devices. These often critical thermal conditions require a detailed knowledge of the aero-thermal behavior of real engine components in order to proceed with improved design. The use of CFD is thus becoming more and more popular among turbine producers also for at design stage of the secondary air system. Dealing with complex geometries, non-aerodynamic bodies, strong temperature and velocity gradients and unsteady phenomena, and ranging the reference Mach from the incompressible limit of the coolant to the transonic regime in the first vanes, it is often very challenging to obtain reliable results and specific tools should be used in order to improve the quality of predictions. The path to make OpenFOAM libraries a reliable tool for heat transfer prediction in turbomachinery is hence illustrated, together with details of the implemented algorithms and models. A wide set of applications of the code to both internal (ribbed and pinned internal channel, impingements) and external (film and effusion holes) cooling are also shown ranging from simple validation test cases to real engine components studied experimentally with Thermo Liquid Crystals.

 

Metals at the tap – how did we get it so wrong and what next?
Dr Colin Hayes (School of Engineering, Swansea University)
5 May 2009Harrison 170 Tuesday 2pmInformatics RI
The metals at the tap of greatest concern are lead, copper and nickel, all of which have health concerns (particularly lead). These metals mainly arise from pipes and fittings in the domestic water supply system. Despite apparent EU requirements to mitigate such issues, sampling problems have conspired to substantially diminish corrective action, the big exception being the UK , where 95% of public water supplies are dosed with ortho-phosphate to suppress plumbosolvency. As sampling deficiencies are rectified, the true scale of problems will emerge. An initial assessment is that 25% of the EU population could be at risk from lead in drinking water. Copper problems appear to be insignificant, whereas nickel problems may also be significant, subject to any future changes in the health based standard. International research networking has potentially influenced the revision of the EU Drinking Water Directive and the implementation of the WHO/UN Protocol on Water and Health. Metals at the tap appear set to climb the international policy agenda. A zonal lead emission model has been developed at Swansea University that can predict compliance with lead standards across an entire City or Town. This is based on a Monte Carlo probabilistic framework and has been validated successfully in numerous case studies. It has been used to optimise phosphate dosing and is currently being used to investigate health risks.

 

Topology Optimisation: Challenges and Applications
Dr H Alicia Kim (Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bath)
19 Mar 2009Harrison 171 Thursday 2pmAdvanced Technologies RI
Topology optimisation is considered the most generalised form of structural optimisation. This seminar will discuss two of the most popular methods: SIMP (Solid Isotropic Material with Penalisation) and ESO (Evolutionary Structural Optimisation). Our recent research showed both of the methods are prone to numerical instabilities, due to the use of regular mesh and piecewise constant design variables. This finding supports the recent development of the boundary based approaches such as level-set function methods. Research at Bath has been developing the efficient and convergent optimisation methods and the current research activities will be presented. The seminar will also show two application areas: traditional engineering design and study of bone remodelling.

 

Personalised Footwear: From Elite to High Street using Rapid Manufacturing
Dr Candice Majewski (Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University)
13 Nov 2008Harrison 107 Thursday 2pmAdvanced Technologies RI
Rapid Manufacturing encompasses a group of additive technologies used to fabricate end-use parts. A major advantage of this approach is the elimination of the requirement for tooling, thereby allowing production runs of N=1 whilst incurring no cost penalties. This, combined with the geometric freedom achievable with these processes, makes true personalisation of consumer products a viable option. The ~£1 million IMCRC-funded integrated project ‘Personalised Sports Footwear: From Elite to High Street’ is investigating the use of Rapid Manufacturing to produce personalised sports shoes, with the aim of enhancing performance, reducing injury, and providing improved functionality. Initially focussing on footwear for elite athletes, the ultimate goal of the project is to allow the general public to purchase fully personalised footwear at an affordable price, by replacing injection moulded outsoles with rapid manufactured alternatives.

 

Industrial practices and research potential for reverse logistics systems
Dr Qu Tang (Department of Management and Engineering, Linkoping University, Sweden)
1 May 2008Harrison 209 Thursady 1pmAdvanced Technologies RI

 

KALYPSO – An Open Source Software Tool for Flood Studies in Rivers
Professor Erik Pasche (Hamburg University of Technology)
13 Mar 2008Harrison 171 Thursday 4pmInformatics RI
As a result of climate change, urbanization and land-use changes, floods are becoming more frequent and causing increased loss and damage to property and life. The EU water policy reacted with a paradigm change in its water policy from blocking off flood prone areas (with dikes and walls) to give water more space and live with the flood. The consequence is the need to expand the relationship between the city, space and water and to improve stake-holders’ capacity to adapt to flood risk. These new guidelines for flood management require a good understanding about the impact of river morphology and anthropogenic changes on the flow regime in rivers and on the probability of inundation. Research Activities in the last dec-ades have considerably improved this understanding leading to sophisticated mathematical fluvial flow models. They range from 1-dimensional unsteady flow models to 2- and 3-dimensional hydrodynamic models, which make use of refined roughness concepts and turbu-lence approaches and accomplish a high resolution of the topography. The engineering world should have access to theses instruments in a most flexible and effi-cient way being able to combine 1- and 2-dimensional models (hybrid modeling), to select refined roughness concepts for vegetated flood plains (physically based roughness modeling) and to compare different turbulence approaches. Also the enormous amount of geographical data calls for an efficient and versatile data management and visualization tool. Thus present research concentrates more on model integration and data mining than model generation. Since two years a team of researchers at the Institute of River & Coastal Engineering at TUHH/Hamburg together with engineers from Björnsen Consulting Engineers Koblenz have developed such an integration shell for fluvial flow modelling called KALYPSO (www.kalypso.wb.tu-harburg.de). This Open Source software system for flood risk modelling is based on OGC-standards (www.opengeospaial.org) and provides an Open GIS user inter-face for map-based data access and input. A Web Map Service (WMS) based on an imple-mentation of the Open Source software deegree (www.deegree.org) provides access to GIS-data via Internet. With a work flow browser the user is guided through the tasks of flood modelling in a logical order including various tools for grid generation and boundary data management (pre-processing), for defining and starting the simulation cases (processing) and for analysing and visualization of the simulation results in inundation maps, flood damage maps and flood risk maps (post-processing). For the modelling of fluvial flow hybrid model-ling technique is available integrating 1- and 2-dimensional discretization elements and St. Venant and Shallow Water Equations. This new modelling shell for fluvial floods will be presented and its theoretical concept illus-trated. The hybrid modelling technology, the data mining functionality and the open GIS-based GUI will be explained and its application demonstrated at real cases of fluvial floods

 

Research Performed at the Aerospace Structures Laboratory Faculty of Aerospace Engineering
Prof. Haim Abraovich (Aerospace Structures Laboratory Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Technion, I.I.T, Haifa, Israel)
6 Dec 2007Harrison 106 Thursady 2PMAdvanced Technologies RI
The research performed at the Aerospace Structures Laboratory Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Technion,I.I.T, Haifa, Israel. consists on two main topics: stability and dynamics of thin walled laminated composite structures and smart structures applications. An overview will be given on both topics.

 

Development of Scaffolds and Bioreactors for Tissue Engineering and Stem Cell Bioprocessing
Julian Chaudhuri (University of Bath)
13 Sep 2007Harrison X-AT Conference Room (121) Thursday 2pmAdvanced Technologies RI
Mass transfer limitations of tissue engineering scaffolds are currently hindering the development of three-dimensional, clinically viable, tissue engineered constructs. In our laboratory we are investigating routes to improve the formation of viable tissue constructs. This presentation will describe our interests in developing both novel scaffolds and bioreactors, to support cell culture and improve nutrient transport to the proliferating cells. We are also using similar approaches to improve the handling and bioprocessing of stem cell populations.

 

Engineering Civilisation from the Shadows
ICE - Institute of Civil Engineers - South West (6th Brunel International Lecture)
11 Jul 2007Royal Clarence Hotel - Wednesday 6pmInformatics RI

This lecture will examine world poverty and climate change in the 21st century, focusing on the role of engineering in addressing these challenges in relation to the Millennium Development Goals.

The lecture is free to attend but it is necessary to register attendance.

** Places are limited, so register early to avoid disappointment **

Contact Barbara Davey, Regional Administrator:
t +44 (0)1626 879 836
e barbara.davey@ice.org.uk
w ice-southwest.org.uk

ICE South West
10 Newton Road, Bishppsteignton
Teignmouth, Devon TQ14 9PN

 

High Productivity Welding for the Trans Alaska Gas Pipeline
Professor Stewart Williams (Cranfield University)
23 Nov 2006Harrison 215 Thursday 2pmAdvanced Technologies RI
Installation of new pipelines is predicted to grow at a rapid rate over the next twenty years, due in part to the increase use worldwide of combined cycle power generation plant using natural gas as fuel. The need to construct large diameter pipelines over long distances has led to an increased demand to improve the productivity of pipeline girth welding. The Welding Engineering Research Centre (WERC) at Cranfield University has been researching into to this application for several with the work split into three phases:  Phase 1 – High efficiency automated dual tandem GMA (CAPS) for improved productivity in the fill passes (4 instead of 16)  Phase 2 – Application to very high strength steel to reduce the pipe wall thickness from 25mm to 20mm (and therefore material costs (500,00 tonnes less))  Phase 3 – Fibre laser or hybrid fibre laser welding of the root pass – higher speeds. The talk will describe how gas pipelines are manufactured, provide a brief history of pipeline welding, and describe how the first two phases have implemented along with the current research into phase three. The talk will be preceded by a brief introduction to Cranfield University and the current research programme of the WERC.

 

Piezoelectric composites: Properties and applications
Dr Chris Bowen (Materials Research Centre, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bath)
8 Jun 2006Harrison None Thursday 2pmAdvanced Technologies RI
This presentation will provide an overview of the properties and applications of piezoelectric composites. Porous piezoelectrics ceramics with '3-3' connectivity will be described for hydrophone applications and the mechanism by which porosity increases the performance of the material for SONAR applications will be discussed. These porous piezoelectrics will also be infiltrated with a conductive phase to create model conductor-dielectric composites in an attempt to understand the origins of the 'universal dielectric response'; a property observed in many materials. Both modelling and experimental results will be presented.

 

An overview of the research activities at IIT Kanpur: Hydrological Modelling
Dr. Ashu Jain (ITT Kanpur, India)
1 Jun 2006Harrison 170 Tuesday 2pmInformatics RI
"In this talk I plan to first give a very brief background of the Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs), IIT Kanpur, and the department of civil engineering at IIT Kanpur. The research activities of the Hydraulics and Water Resources Engineering (HWRE) group at IIT Kanpur will be presented. The focus will be on hydrological modelling. Some case studies on water demand modelling and hydrological modelling will be presented. The methods employed include data-driven techniques of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and Genetic Algorithms (GAs). Special issues such as difficulties in ANN training, integration of conceptual and data-driven approaches, etc. will be discussed and the results presented. If the time permits, a case study on the exploration of physical significance in trained ANN hydrologic models will also be presented."

 

Remote Magnetic Sensing of People (Advanced Technologies Research Institute (ATRI) research seminar)
Professor Des Mapps (Centre of Expertise in Electromagnetic Sensors, University of Plymouth)
9 Feb 2006Harrison 203 Thursday 2pmEngineering

 

Green Ceramic Machining: A Top-down Approach to Rapid Prototyping of Ceramics
Dr Bo Su (Department of Oral and Dental Science, University of Bristol)
12 Jan 2006Harrison 203 Thursday 2pmEngineering

 

Raster-based models for flood inundation: Simple solutions to a complex problem?
Dr Neil Hunter (School of Geographical Sciences, University of Bristol)
1 Dec 2005Harrison 203 Thursday 2pmEngineering

 

Hydroinformatics Technologies for Urban Water Systems Planning and Management
Dr Zoran Vojinovic (UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education (IHE-Delft))
3 Nov 2005Harrison 203 Thursday 2pmEngineering

 

URBAN WATER MANAGEMENT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES - RESEARCH@WEDC
Dr V. Vairavamoorthy (Loughborough)
5 May 2005Harrison 203 Thursday 2pmEngineering
The presentation will cover research currently being undertaken in the area of Hydroinformatics at WEDC, Department of Civil and Building Engineering, Loughborough University. Research is currently being undertaken to develop decision support systems for low and middle income countries in the areas of: water supply management; risk and reliability of water supply systems; watershed models for optimal plans of spatial allocation of water and land resources; hydraulic simulation of irrigation systems using open source technologies like Java and MySQL. The presentation will provide a brief description of two example research projects that attempt to support the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDG’S). The MDG’s have set clear targets for reducing poverty, hunger, illiteracy, disease, discrimination against women and environmental degradation by 2015. Progress towards the key MDGs will be accelerated through improved environmental health conditions, in particular access to water and sanitation and environmental sustainability. The two example research projects contribute in a small way to the Target 10 of the MDGs as the first is in relation to improving access to water (quantity) and the second is in relation to improving access to improved water quality. Both research projects involve: development of appropriate technology for the particular problem in the developing country; involve a strong software component; involve a capacity building element. The two example research projects that will be presented will be: Guidelines for “Design of water supply systems operating under water scarcity conditions” –In many countries the availability of water is either inadequate or restricted due to difficulties such as power cuts. An alternative approach to design of these systems has been developed which employs a modified network analysis procedure and utilises formal optimisation techniques to ensure the maximum uniformity in supply. Guidelines for “Water quality risk assessment & management in piped water” - This concerns the risk of contaminant intrusion into water distribution systems (WDS) under extreme conditions (e.g. pipe break, low etc.) which is one of the main reasons for water quality degradation. The presentation will describe the development of IRA-WDS, a new and innovative GIS based tool for managing water quality in urban distribution systems in developing countries. The outputs from IRS-WDS are a series of risk maps that indicate the risk of contaminant intrusion in the various parts of the water distribution system.

 

Design Optimization and Stochastic Analysis: Issues of Commercial Software Development
Professor Vassili Toropov (Altair Engineering Ltd.)
15 Apr 2005Harrison H203 Friday 14.00Engineering
This talk will be on design optimization and stochastic analysis as seen by Altair Engineering, an international commercial software developer, vendor and consulting company. Examples from its customers will demonstrate how such software tools are used in product development in automotive, aerospace, consumer goods, medical, offshore and other sectors.

 

Future issues in urban drainage modelling: urban flooding and integrated approaches
Prof. Theo Schmitt (Technical University of Kaiserslautern)
24 Mar 2005Harrison 203 Thursday 2pmEngineering
After a short introduction of my group at Kaiserslautern University, I would briefly outline the development of urban drainage modelling and then focus on two specific issues: (1) Modelling of urban flooding has become an important issue elated to the European Standard EN 752 and the flooding frequencies ecommended for urban drainage systems. A detailed approach coupling hydraulic models for surface and sewer flow will be presented. (2) Integrated modelling of the urban wastewater system has been pushed during the last decade to consider all wastewater related sources of pollution load discharged to receiving waters. Aspects of integrated modelling will be illustrated by linking a detailed pollution load model (drainage system) and IWA's Activated Sludge Model (wastewater treatment plant).

 

Effect of heat release on the dissipation of scalar fluctuations in turbulent premixed flames
Dr N. Swaminathan (University of Cambridge)
10 Mar 2005Harrison 203 Thursday 2pmEngineering
The scalar dissipation rate signifies the local mixing rate and thus plays a vital role in the modelling of reaction rate in turbulent flames. The local mixing rate is influenced by the turbulence, the chemical and the molecular diffusion processes which are strongly coupled in turbulent premixed flames. Thus, the model for the mean scalar dissipation rate, thus the mean reaction rate, should include the contributions of these processes. Earlier models for the scalar dissipation rate includes only a turbulence time scale. In this study, we derive exact transport equations for the instantaneous and the mean scalar dissipation rates. Using these equations, a simple algebraic model for the mean scalar dissipation rate is obtained. This model includes a chemical as well as a turbulence time scale and its prediction compares well with direct numerical simulation results. Reynolds--Averaged--Navier--Stokes calculations of a test flame using the model obtained here show that the contribution of dilatation to local turbulent mixing rate is important to predict the propagation phenomenon in turbulent premixed flames.

 

Ultrasound attenuation as a quantitative measure of fracture healing
Dr Sabina Gheduzzi (University of Bristol)
9 Dec 2004Harrison 203 Thursday 2pmEngineering
The monitoring of fracture healing still relies upon the judgement of callus formation and on the manual assessment of the stiffness of the fracture. A diagnostic tool capable of quantitatively measuring healing progression of a fracture would allow the fine-tuning of the treatment regime. Ultrasound attenuation measurements were adopted as a possible method of assessing the healing process in human long bones. The method involves exciting ultrasonic waves at 200 kHz in the bone and measuring the re-radiation along the bone and across the fracture zone. Seven cadaveric femora were tested in-vitro in intact form and after creating a transverse fracture by sawing through the cortex. The effects of five different fracture types were investigated. A partial fracture, corresponding to a 50% cut through the cortex, a closed fracture and fractures of widths varying between 1, 2 and 4 mm were investigated. The introduction of a fracture was found to produce a dramatic effect on the amplitude of the signal. Ultrasound attenuation was found to be sensitive to the presence of a fracture, even when the fracture was well reduced. It would therefore appear feasible to adopt attenuation across a fracture as a quantitative measurement of fracture healing.

 

Dynamics, Damping and Defects in Thin Ferromagnetic Films
Robert D. McMichael (US National Institute of Standards and Technology)
29 Oct 2004Newman E Friday 11amEngineering
Modern disk drives can read and write bits every two nanoseconds, a time scale very similar to the magnetic damping time of the ferromagnetic metals used in the heads. The damping characteristics are also important for thermally-driven magnetic noise in sensors. Furthermore, it seems likely that damping will limit data rates in magnetic random access memory, since the magnetization in a memory cell must be allowed to settle between switching events. For all of these applications, measurements of damping are important, and these measurements are most commonly made by ferromagnetic resonance linewidth. The two problems that complicate measurements of damping by ferromagnetic resonance are: 1) defects contribute to the linewidth, so that the linewidth is the combined effect of defects and damping, and 2) the form of the damping itself is the subject of some debate.

 

Investigation and monitoring of tunnelling works at Lewes, incorporating the ABI Code of Practice for Tunnelling.
Dr Robert Hodgson (Black & Veatch)
14 Oct 2004Harrison 203 Thursday 2pmEngineering

 

Quantification of the effect of flow on the initial processes of bacterial attachment.
Mr John Boyle
20 May 2004Harrison 203 Thursday 2pmEngineering

 

Modulling the Micromechanics of Auxetics (Stealing ideas from granular mechanics)
Dr Neil Gaspar
13 May 2004Harrison 203 Thursday 2pmEngineering

 

The aerodynamics of airborne pollen: how do pines pollinate? (Or, is nature really that stupid?)
Dr James Cresswell and Dr Gavin Tabor
6 May 2004Harrison 203 Thursday 2pmEngineering

 

Future Floods - the Foresight flood and coastal defence project.
Professor Richard Ashley
5 May 2004Harrison 203 Thursday 9.15amEngineering

 

Imprecise methods for analysing uncertainty in climate projections and impacts.
Dr Jim W Hall
29 Apr 2004Harrison 203 Thursday 2pmEngineering