number theory and entropy

K.H. Knuth, "Deriving laws from ordering relations", in G.J. Erickson, Y. Zhai (eds.), *Bayesian Inference and Maximum Entropy Methods in Science and Engineering*, AIP Conference Proceedings 707
(2003) 204–235

[author's description:] "In this paper I show that bi-valuations defined on distributive lattices
give rise to a sum rule, a product rule and a Bayes' theorem analog that
are most familiar in the realm of Bayesian probability theory. This work
is a generalization of Richard T. Cox's derivation of probability theory
from Boolean algebra by defining degrees of implication. However, here I
show that the potential for application is much greater than previously
envisioned. The Möbius function for the distributive lattice gives rise
to Gian-Carlo Rota's inclusion-exclusion relation, which is responsible
for the form of many laws familiar from areas of study as diverse as
probability theory, number theory, geometry, information theory, and
quantum mechanics."

K.H. Knuth, "Lattice duality: The origin of probability
and entropy", *Neurocomputing* **67** C (2005) 245-274

[author's description:] "This paper shows how a straight-forward generalization of the zeta
function of a distributive lattice gives rise to bi-valuations that
represent degrees of belief in Boolean lattices of assertions and degrees
of relevance in the distributive lattice of questions. The distributive
lattice of questions originates from Richard T. Cox's definition of a
question as the set of all possible answers, which I show is equivalent to
the ordered set of down-sets of assertions. Thus the Boolean lattice of
assertionns is shown to be dual to the distributive lattice of questions
in the sense of Birkhoff's Representation Theorem. A straightforward
correspondence between bi-valuations generalized from the zeta functions
of each lattice give rise to bi-valuations that represent probabilities in
the lattice of assertions and bi-valuations that represent entropies and
higher-order informations in the lattice of questions."

A.H. Chamseddine, A. Connes and W.D. van Suijlekom, "Entropy and the spectral action" (preprint 09/2018)

[abstract:] "We compute the information theoretic von Neumann entropy of the state associated to the fermionic second quantization of a spectral triple. We show that this entropy is given by the spectral action of the spectral triple for a specific universal function. The main result of our paper is the surprising relation between this function and the Riemann zeta function. It manifests itself in particular by the values of the coefficients $c(d)$ by which it multiplies the $d$ dimensional terms in the heat expansion of the spectral triple. We find that $c(d)$ is the product of the Riemann xi function evaluated at $-d$ by an elementary expression. In particular $c(4)$ is a rational multiple of $\zeta(5)$ and $c(2)$ a rational multiple of $\zeta(3)$. The functional equation gives a duality between the coefficients in positive dimension, which govern the high energy expansion, and the coefficients in negative dimension, exchanging even dimension with odd dimension."

P. Kumar, P.C. Ivanov, H.E. Stanley, "Information entropy and correlations in prime
numbers"

[abstract:] "The difference between two consecutive prime numbers is called the distance
between the primes. We study the statistical properties of the distances and their
increments (the difference between two consecutive distances) for a sequence comprising the
first 5 x 10^{7} prime numbers. We find that the histogram of the increments follows
an exponential distribution with superposed periodic behavior of period three, similar to
previously-reported period six oscillations for the distances."

*Nature*
article on this research (24/03/03)

S.W. Golomb, "Probability,
information theory, and prime number theory", *Discrete
Mathematics* **106-107** (1992) 219-229

[abstract:] "For any probability distribution *D* =
{\alpha(*n*)} on **Z**^{+}, we define. . . the
probability in *D* that a 'random' integer is a multiple of
*m*; and . . . the probability in *D* that a 'random'
integer is relatively prime to *k*. We specialize this general
situation to three important families of distributions . . . Several
basic results and concepts from analytic prime number theory are
revisited from the perspective of these families of probability
distributions, and the Shannon entropy for each of these families is
determined."

C. Bonanno and M.S. Mega, "Toward a dynamical model for prime numbers"
*Chaos, Solitons and Fractals* **20** (2004) 107-118

[abstract:] "We show one possible dynamical approach to the study of the distribution of prime numbers. Our
approach is based on two complexity methods, the Computable Information Content and the Entropy Information
Gain, looking for analogies between the prime numbers and intermittency."

The main idea here is that the Manneville map *T*_{z} exhibits a phase
transition at *z* = 2, at which point the mean *Algorithmic Information Content*
of the associated symbolic dynamics is *n*/log *n*. *n* is a kind of iteration number.
For this to work, the domain of *T*_{z} [0,1] must be partitioned as
[0,0.618...] U [0.618...,1] where 1.618... is the golden mean.

The authors attempt to exploit the resemblance to the approximating function in the Prime
Number Theorem, and in some sense model the distribution of primes in dynamical terms,
i.e. relate the prime number series (as a binary string) to the orbits of the Manneville
map T_{2}. Certain refinements of this are then explored.

"We remark that this approach to study prime numbers is similar to the probabilistic
approach introduced by Cramér...that is we assume that the [binary] string [generated
by the sequence of primes]...is one of a family of strings on which there is a probability measure..."

E. Canessa, "Theory of analogous force on number sets" (preprint 07/03)

[abstract:] "A general statistical thermodynamic theory that considers given sequences of
[natural numbers] to play the role of particles of known type in an isolated elastic system is
proposed. By also considering some explicit discrete probability distributions *p*_{x}
for natural numbers, we claim that they lead to a better understanding of probabilistic laws
associated with number theory. Sequences of numbers are treated as the size measure of finite
sets. By considering *p*_{x} to describe complex phenomena, the theory leads
to derive a distinct analogous force *f*_{x} on number sets proportional to
$(\fract{\partial p_{x}}{\partial x})_{T}$ at an analogous system temperature *T*. In
particular, this yields to an understanding of the uneven distribution of integers of random sets
in terms of analogous scale invariance and a screened inverse square force acting on the significant
digits. The theory also allows to establish recursion relations to predict sequences of Fibonacci
numbers and to give an answer to the interesting theoretical question of the appearance of the
Benford's law in Fibonacci numbers. A possible relevance to prime numbers is also analyzed."

Informational theoretic entropy is defined in this setting in part II.B.

A.I. Aptekarev, J.S. Dehesa, A. Martinez-Finkelshtein, R. Yanez, "Discrete entropies of orthogonal polynomials" (preprint 10/2007)

[abstract:] "Let $p_n$ be the $n$-th orthonormal polynomial on the real line, whose zeros
are $\lambda_j^{(n)}$, $j=1, ..., n$. Then for each $j=1, ..., n$, $$ \vec \Psi_j^2 =
(\Psi_{1j}^2, ..., \Psi_{nj}^2) $$ with $$ \Psi_{ij}^2= p_{i-1}^2 (\lambda_j^{(n)})
(\sum_{k=0}^{n-1} p_k^2(\lambda_j^{(n)}))^{-1}, \quad i=1, >..., n, $$ defines a discrete
probability distribution. The Shannon entropy of the sequence $\{p_n\}$ is consequently defined
as $$ \mathcal S_{n,j} = -\sum_{i=1}^n \Psi_{ij}^{2} \log (\Psi_{ij}^{2}) . $$ In the case of
Chebyshev polynomials of the first and second kinds an explicit and closed formula for
$\mathcal S_{n,j}$ is obtained, revealing interesting connections with the number theory. Besides,
several results of numerical computations exemplifying the behavior of $\mathcal S_{n,j}$ for
other families are also presented."

P. Tempesta, "Group entropies, correlation laws and zeta functions" (preprint 05/2011)

[abstract:] "The notion of group entropy is proposed. It enables to unify and generalize many different definitions of entropy known in the literature, as those of Boltzmann–Gibbs, Tsallis, Abe and Kaniadakis. Other new entropic functionals are presented, related to nontrivial correlation laws characterizing universality classes of systems out of equilibrium, when the dynamics is weakly chaotic. The associated thermostatistics are discussed. The mathematical structure underlying our construction is that of formal group theory, which provides the general structure of the correlations among particles and dictates the associated entropic functionals. As an example of application, the role of group entropies in information theory is illustrated and generalizations of the Kullback–Leibler divergence are proposed. A new connection between statistical mechanics and zeta functions is established. In particular, Tsallis entropy is related to the classical Riemann zeta function."

This is the concluding paragraph from J. Lagarias, "Number theory zeta functions and dynamical zeta functions",
in *Spectral Problems in Geometry and Arithmetic* (T. Branson, *ed.*), *Contemporary Math.* **237**
(AMS, 1999) 45-86: