Classic and Historical Papers Papers on Climate and Related Matters



This list is very short at the moment. I will add to it slowly.


Radiation

Gustav Arrhenius, 1896: On the influence of carbonic acid in the air upon the temperature of the ground The London, Edinburgh, and Dublin Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science (aka Phil. Mag.) v41, 237-276.
PDF file
This is one of the very first studies of the greenhouse effect and Earth's radiation budget, and lays the foundation for present-day studies of global warming. This is (to my knowledge) the first study in which the water vapour feedback was included by way of a fixed relative humidty asumption.

George C. Simpson, 1927: Some Studies in Terrestrial Radiation. Memoirs of the Royal Meteorological Society 2(16) 69-95.
PDF file

George C. Simpson, 1928: Further Studies in Terrestrial Radiation. Memoirs of the Royal Meteorological Society 3(21) 1-26.
PDF file
It is here where Simpson discusses the effects of the non-greyness of infra-red radiation in Earth's atmosphere.

George C. Simpson, 1929: The Distribution of Terrestrial Radiation. Memoirs of the Royal Meteorological Society 3(23) 53-78.
PDF file

George C. Simpson, 1929. Discussion of Memoirs. Quarterly J. Royal Meteorological Society 55 73-79.
PDF file
Simpson, along with Arrhenius, was one of the great pioneers of atmospheric radiation and Earth's radiation budget.

Hergesell, H. 1919:. Die Strahlung der Atmosphaere unter Zugrundelegung vom Lindenbergen Temperatur- und Feuchtigkeitsmessungen. Die Arbeiten des Preusslichen Aeronautischen Observatoriums bei Lindenberg 13, 1-24.
PDF file

Climate

Budyko, M. I., 1969. the effect of solar radiation variations on the climate of the Earth. Tellus 5, 611-619
PDF file

Sellers, W. D. 1969. A global climatic model based on the energy balance of the Earth-Atmosphere system. J. Appl. Meteor. 8, 392-400
PDF file
The Budyko and Sellers papers introduced so-called energy-balance models (also called Budyko-Sellers models), which are rather simple models, often one-dimensional (latitude) that predict the surface temperature using very simple radiation schemes and a simple, often diffusive, parameterization of meridional heat flux. Among other things, the notion of ice-albedo feedback, and the possibility of multiple climate equilibria and a snowball earth, were elucidated with this kind of model.

Hasselmann, K. 1976. Stochastic climate models. Part 1. Theory Tellus 8, 392-400
PDF file
This paper essentially presents the null-hypothesis of climate variability, that climate variability originates in the weather variability of the atmosphere, which one might suppose to be white noise, and this is reddened by the interaction with the ocean, with its large heat capacity. Although it is likely that other, more deterministic and possibly more predictable, mechanisms of climate variability exist (for example, long term variations in the ocean circulation), Hasselmann's mechanism almost certainly accounts for some of the long term variance in the climate signal. The Hasselmann paper was followed by one by Frankignoul and Hasselmann (Tellus, 1977, 284-305) that applies these ideas to sea-surface temperature anomalies. about any of the above.